ѧ˵ϻ׺

Ļо

ѧ˵ϻ

 

AbstractIt is based on the understanding of the oneness of man that Aquinas establishes a distinctive doctrine of substance and essence in his metaphysics. He divides the different kinds of substances with different methods to find the essence in them, and in this way he finds the key point to understand that human soul is the substantial form of human being and it also can be the subsistent form because of its intellectual power which can operate without body; he insists that the essence of the composite substance is existent and complex, which deepens the purport to emphasize the unity and the individuality of man in his anthropology; he also distinguishes being as actuality and essence as potentiality, and in this way he confirms that man must be studied and understood in his existent activity. Beside these, Aquinas develops his doctrine of the particularity of essence based on the concepts designated matter (materia signata)and individual form (formae individuantur) so that in his anthropology the significance of the human body comes into prominence, and the problem of the individuation of the human soul has been solved. In the end,the oneness of man in the field of mans substantial structure has been resolved.

Key words: Aquinas, anthropology, substance, essence, form, matter

 

 

 

 

ڹ浽˵볬ԽĿġ뾫׷֮Ĺϵ⣬Ҳϵ˵ͼֵʶˣ˵ͳһ˵κһڽ˼뽨жҪԵһش⡣ͻڽ˼ķչԣڻڽϣ˼ײУ˵ͳһѾ͹֡ΪdzϮͼ塢°ͼ˼Ļڽ˼ҵ¶ͼ¹˹˾Ѿע⵽˰ͼ崫ͳ˵ڽ֮Ҳͼ˵ͳһ⡣ʮͣǵѧ˼ܹ֮˵塢оԼͳһԹϵȽϺ˵ΪΪԼѧ˼뽨һȽϼʵѧУȻ˶ʿΪϣ˼ļ̳УҪ̺ŰʵۺͱϵĴ¡ͳһԹϵ֤ǰǿ˵ͳһԵѧ˼ĺĺ㣬֪ģ˵˵ĹϵģҲһ㣬Ϊʿѧ˼ļ̳ߡȻʿ۲ûн˵֮Ĺϵʹ[1]һѧ꡷뱻ǹϵ˺ѧߵǧ[2]ܹϵ֮ȫȫķʽ[3]˵Ļϵ⣬ʿµ۽̵ĸ죬ָҪڰ½ʵѧ˵ԴΪԼıۡѧ˼ͨʵִͣʵǶʶıʣָ˸ʵ屾ʵĺϳԣӶΪ֤˵ȫԺԵ춨˻ͨԵָ廯ʽ˱ʵѧ˵ӶΪȷʶ˵ĸ˵ʵĹϵƽ˵·

һǵʵѧ˵

ѧ˼ֱʵν[4]ѧȫһʥԼ͡˳˴졢ʹԼյĴ֮ſʼ˵⡣ʵϣʹﵽ˵ҲӦ˰ǵʵ򣺾Եʵ塢ʵ塢ϣʣʵԼϵʵʵ⸴ʵˡڲͬʵ֣Ҫͨ뱾ʡʽϵάȽпġ

ڰǿͬеıǸͬģ˶ԱڸʵеĴڷʽͱҪзűطհǵĿڲͬʵеĹٴλϵIJֲ𣬰ǽʵ廮Ϊֲͬͣʵʵ塣۱ʵʱ ȽʵΪʵʵԣνʵָϵʵǾʵָʵ塢ʹȾʵ壻ʵʵҲͨ˵ʵʵ[5]ʵаر𻮳һһʵ弴ܰǾһꡢʵͳΪʵϵʵǷǿԵǿһıڴڷʽϵĽȻͬˣڰǿʵ֮бʿַʽǾǣԵʵֵıʣľʵ壬ҲʹʵֵıʣԼڸʵ壬Ҳʵ߿ɸʵֵıʣͲֲͬʵ壬幹ɵĸʵ壬䱾ӦðոʵĴڷʽ죬Ȼ˵ľʵ漰˵꣬漰ΪĴڣڿʵıʴڷʽʱҲ浽ˡ

ԣΪľԵԣԼΪڱıʼĴڡڰǿĴһ־ϴĴڣDzҪҲ׷ԭĴڡΪ֮⣬κĴڶǴӱõģͨڵĶԻԭЩͨڵĶˣ֮κĴڶбԼıԵģΪԭЩͨڵĶĽȻһһ䱾Ϊһڣڵԭ[6]Ϊڵԭκһ֮УĴҲбԺ͸߹ң֮κԺ͸߹Ҳ֮߹ͬĴڱоЩԵΪֻܹһʲʵһͻÿһ[7]ֱָԴȪ[8]ڶһʶͻһ֮IJ𣬾˶ԣ˵ʵڲһܹ鵽һ[9]˵ǿԶڵľʵ壬ʹͨĵط˵Ϊʵ壬ڣҲڣǵˣ˵Ϊʵ壬ĵȼر£ҪڣһҪԶʵĴڣͬĵطҲֻһʵͬĵط˱߱һӵж꣬һ꣬־߱ӦĸԲͬǰѧ˼֤۵Ļݡ

ʵԣȰϵʵ壬ҲʹҲΪиDZԣرӽ [10]ӶϽϵ˵ꡣȻʹ˵꣬Ƕûϣֻʽʹ˶ԣDZȸʵ嵥ֲͬľԵΪʽڣڲǵıʣǽܹģӶܱܵơˣʵڶԲǾԵģǵıʾʽûϵģ䱾ǾԵġ簢˵ǵĴڶԣ޵ģΪԸ߼ʵڣȻӽϵ͵IJ濴Dz޵ģΪǵʽDzֽǵϵƵ[11]ֵעǣ̸۵ʵ壬ʵУЩʵǵأʹϽϣϽܵ⣬Ȼʵе˶ԵġڰǿϣΪʵ䵱ʽΪʽȴơ˵ʱ򣬰ǼΪ˵ڱ±Ҫ˵壬˵Ϊ˵ʽһDzٵġȻѧ˵ʽDzֽǵϵƵһ־ʵıʹΪġ

⣬̸ϵʵıʱ򣬰ǾʽϵĹϵдָ֤ʽܹڸϡӶ뿪ʽϱ㲻ܴȥǣ뿪ϣʽ֮ȥȴDzܵġΪʽΪʽԣDzϵġʱǻᷢʽ֮б㲻ܾдڣķΪһʽһԭԶԵʣЩӽһԭʽʵ϶дڵ[12]ͻʿµľۣڿ϶ʽ໥ϵͬʱΪʽĵڱ˿ռ䡣Ҫʿµ۽ĸ죬һҪĿľҪ֤Ϊʵ˵꣬䵱ʽ󻹿ԶڡУ̸ΪһԭʽԶһԭʽעĽ֮Ϊ˵ʽ˵ꡣȻΪһԭʽʵ壬ҲʹΪϵʵڣԶһԭһʽ棬ôڶܹ֮꣬ΪʵʽΪϵ干ͬɸʵ˵ĴڣֿΪʵڣҲûʲôˡ

УʵûϣˣʵͬһϾͷֲ˵ʵƷλ͵ģӽʹܹĴ[13]ͲĸˡУضҪĸ廯˵֮ԭرǿ˵Ϊ廯ģǣȡ壬廯Ҳ˶ʧΪеĴǾԵģһһʽͻĸ廯ĴڣǴھͽԶָ廯[14]廯һ۶ϣ׵ر֤˵ĸΪڿ϶ʽͬʱֿ϶ʧȻָԶڣӶ帴ĩнҪ춨ѧĻ

͸ʵԣָϺʽϳɵʵзֵ[15]ʵĴڼǽܹģܵƵġΪʵڱдڵģͬʱʵҪܵضϵơңϵ֣ʵܹж塣˾ĸʵ壬ԣ˵У٣ҪΪ壬Ҫܱܵˣ˵ıֻдеʽȥ죬˵ȫԵĻݣҲDZʾʵԺͺϳԵĻʶ˵ǵʱʵѧ˵Ϊ˵ǻʹԼݣ϶˵Dz֮еľԵӶʹʹֱпɹͨһ棬ͬʱָ˵ڼϵʹǣȻԶ;ڽʶʵֻǴг࣬ٻصʵ⣬͹˰֤оϵҪۻ                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

2   ǵıʵԺͺϳѧ˵

Ϊ۱ʵĴڷʽǰʵ͵[16]ԣʵ͵ͬʱǻıʵԺͺϳѧ˵ȻǾͱʵIJͬڷʽ˿죬ݴȷʵIJͬͣôһӸǣǾοıʵأĹϵأǵ߼˼άͿ͹أʵϣһʼԼʵѧ˵ʱ򣬾ѾЩ⣬Ӷķ֣ǿʵԡϳԼԵıۣҪְ̽ǵıʵԺͺϳѧ˵ѧ壬䱾ǽ϶ָϸĿһ̽֡

һ˵ߵIJͬʽ뱾ʵʵ

ȣ˴ߵIJͬ壬ʿڡζѧеַָ߱ʽԽ˵[17]յһַʽ߿Ϊʮ룬յڶַʽָʵԡַʽʵ˵ߵʵ淽ʽ߼ʽıʣõڶַʽ˵ߣǾͲʣΪַʽκܹγһ϶ģͶԳ֮ΪˣһȱͷҲͿ[18]磬ڰǿ϶Լä⾡ǿ϶⣬漰äҲ˱ΪǴߣDzбʣΪ϶ֻ߼ϵʵԣʵ۵塣ֻ˵ߵĵһַʽܲʣΪַʽ˵Ĵָﱾ;żԵʵʵϵĴߡΪִֻ߲žбʡʸࡢֲȸĹϵʱ򣬰ٴǿ˱ʸʵ壬ࡢֲȸ涨Ϊ߼

ͨʵۻѧϵĴ߸߼ϵĴ߸ֿӶʽ綨Ϊʵۻѧĸʿʵѧ˵нʵ۵ıʸ߼ϵɵĻңͬʱҲȷԼѧ˵ʵԭ򡣶ʵʵԣDZԺͺϳԵĻҲǴӱʵʵԭʶ˵ıʵʱ򣬰Ƿǿ˺Զָ˵ıʣָֻΪ˵ıʣΪ̺˵ϵָ[19]ҲǶԹ˵ͷָ ңǽż챾ʣҲǴʵʴڵĽǶ챾ʣеĸԿʱDz˵ʴضĸ֮У˵˵ˣ֮ΪˣǸлУ⵹ȷ[20] ڱʵԵǿʹðʶ˵ʱǹעΪڵˣע˵ʵڣӶʹѧǿ˵ȫԡԺԵּȤ

ʵ屾ʵĺϳ

۱ʴڷʽǰʶʵ͵ģʹʵһʱǿʵʵıʵĺϳ[21]Ȼеĸʵ嶼˾һʽϣôνʣڸʵ£޷ָʽ϶ɵĶ[22]ζбܽ⺬ˮֵĶķȵĻɵģζԭ򣬵ǣһ֮ԱΪģ¶ȣζζ뺬ˮֵĶġǾݴ˵ó˵Dzܹ˵ʽеκһԳʵıرԽʽǸʵ屾ʵĹ۵ǿʽܹɸʵıʣʹ˼ΪȻʵĶ岻̺ʽһ̺ϣȻʵĶѧͻ޶ΪֻнʵıȷΪȰʽְϣϺģΪʵĴڼȲʽҲϣǵĺνʣ޷ǾԱ˵ɴڵĶ[23]ǿʵʵǿʵĺϳԵ·ȫһµ[24]

ʵʵԺͺϳѧ˵ڰά˵ȫԾʮҪ壬ڡѧȫ˲ֵĿʼΪͼ彫Ϊ˵Ĺ۵㣬ڶ˲꣬϶ɵ֤ʱ򣬰Ǿȷ˱ʾкϳԵ۾ݣȻУʾIJֻʽʽ[25]⣬֮Ҫرǿʵ屾ʵĺϳԣҲΪ˻ӦάѧսЩΪʿİάͽʿµ·϶ʵıʽ˵ıʶΪľʵ꣬Ӷȫ๲һǣڰǿǻΥԭģһѧ˵ΪһȷΪΪʽΪϵĸʵˣ䱾ҲǺϳɵġͨǿʵĺϳԣ˵ıʣӶ˵ȫԣΪȷ˵ĸԵ춨

УǼȻʽ϶뵽ʵıУıʾDZҲʮȻˡϣһʾʿ¸IJͬʿ¿ıʾǾձԵʽˣձԵʽʹDZʵΪĸĶĿ򣬵ܶԵʽﱾʵʱ򣬱ʵȻʵġȻڰǿȲԵԭҲΥѧʵѧ˵ȣ˵ľձԵǸʽǸ˵ĶĿͬʱ˵ıʣô˵ı񲻵ͬڸ˴ڵ𣬻Իڱͬһ𣿵ڶʵ۶ԣϾձԵʽʵıʣôΪʵʽʽϺϳɵʵʵҲͽ϶һ[26]ΪıʲǽֻǾձԵʽǵˣDZʿµﱾʵʽҲͬһһʵԡΪڸʵУʽϵ֣ҸΪģд뱾ʵ֣ﱾĴڱ㲻ɸʽʵ[27]ΪﲻԼԼĴڣڱϾӱõܵĴڱʵ弰ʽͱʵʵʽʶֻһDZڵĶ[28]ʵDZԶڰȷԴ֮IJ𣬽ȷ˵ԾкҪ塣֤˵䱾ʵʱ򣬰Ǿ֤˱ڴڵDZԣΪʵ壬֮ΪʵԣЩʵıΪʵ໥Ӧ[29]

3           ָϺͱѧ˵

    ʵѧ˵һҪɫȷָϵĸҽָ廯ԭ򣬾ݴıģӶرдıѧ˵˶Դͳѧ˵ijԽΪѧ˼ǿ˵ȫԡԺԵķ뷢չ춨˼ʵĻ

1    ǶָϸĽ綨

˼ʷϵһϸֱ֮ǰ϶ԭ硢ûй涨ԡԼȫDZϵһġڰͼˣԭ״ĻأûκεĹ涨ԣߵġԣɾ޽ĽʿҲһ޲һ״̬ʿȷȻʽϹͬɣһձͳһĴDZڵϺһձԵʽܹɾȻأʿ޷õȷĴ𰸡ڰǿȻ״ձͳһ޷ȻγɷֱӵĹϵȰʽְϵĸʵıʵĸҪһֹϵǾͱµĸֹϵ˶Ӧԭָָϵĸ

νָϣհڡ۴뱾ʡеĽ綨ֱָΪ޶άȵϣDetermined dimensions[30]հڡλһ塵עеĽͣ޶άȣָѾ˵άΪѾ˵άǾѾĴڣǾܳΪ廯ԭˣԳΪ廯ԭָϵ޶άʵ޶άҲDZȷάȣάȵı֮УҲܲij޶[31]ɼΪΪָģȻҪάȡȻάȲûΪҪΪһ廯ԭҪһض޶άȵķ޶ıԾָDzҪκضij߶ȵ޶ҪֻDZijЩij߶޶[32]޶άȵһʶ˰ǶָʵʵǿҲǿʵԼԵԭָ£ָԭָ

ָһֲͬԭϵϡڰǿͼ˵ûκι涨ԵĴڻ֮еϣԼʿµձͳһʹDZڵϾԭϣȷʵйŴѧ˵һձԣȻҲΪһ־ԵձԺDZԣҲͽֻһ߼ʵۻѧ塣˵IJͬԴ˽˵Ȼ˵ԵĶȴ϶ɵ϶ɵġΪ˱˵϶ɣ˵˵DzͬеκһģʵϼȲ꣬Ҳ塣ǣһϱ˵ɶ϶ɵģⲢ˵϶ɵ˵϶ɵĵˣܰϮʿµʽۣıʽϹͬɵģȷָﱾʵϲDzʵԭϣָֻϡ̸廯ԭʱ򣬰ָӦףκηʽ϶ܹɸ廯ԭָֻϲ[33]ɼԭֻһ־ձԵ߼Ҳ͸ܳΪʵ屾ʵĹأҲܳ䵱廯ԭֵעǣﰢǴʵۡۡȻѧζѧ߼ѧֵĽǶȻ߶ʹԭϺָϵIJֵ[34]ʼսΪʵ屾ʹҪغ͸廯ԭϽ綨ʵۡ۵άһʾʵ۵ʵּȤڰѧ˼ʼռ˵ԾзdzҪ塣

ȻԭϲܽıʣҲܳΪ廯ԭôǰ϶ĶеǷأΪҲֻһַָϣܽʵıʣӶҲ廯ԭ򡣰˵ַָָϻ𡣵Ȼָԭϲͬһ޹ص߼һ̶ʵĸйˣָ֮ҪڸԷ档ָָDZ֮Ϊ˵ĶУDZո׵ĶУոжĻˡȻ˵ĶеһַָϡΪ˵Ķõģͷ鼡⣬ֻǾԵĹǺ⣬־ԵĹǺ˵ķָ[35]ɼָϾʵĸϾֻһֳָʵⱾʣ˵ʵ[36]

Ƕ͵ķ϶˾޶άָ廯ԭͬʱڷʵʲôϸѾӽڽִѧ涨ʵĹˣڴӹŴѧɵִѧУ˹ı˳µ[37]Ͷѧ˼Ӱԣ϶Ӧ˵壬ȻϣָϾнձԵʽ廯ɻƣΪǴȵһЩõѧ۵ȻҪܵУʵ۵ĽǶȿ϶ÿ˵ĴڵãǿϣͳΪѧ˼пԵһڶ˵ǵijõоУܷгձ⣬رָǵijӸĸУǴӹĸгȻ[38]Ϊ˵˵оϣӶʶ۲϶˵ͳһԵ춨˻

2    ǵıѧ˵

֮ҪָϵĸбΪ˸õ˵ﱾʵԡǿձԵ˼Ҳͬǵʵ۳ֿ϶ﱾʵԡڰ˵ʮȻ飬ΪȻȷΪ߼бʵԸͬʱΪڸʵԣıʼȰʽְϣôͬʱ̺Ϻʽıʾֻģձ[39]ܰǶڱԵԸʵԵģǶʵ壺ʵԣʵҲdzġھʵԣ䱾ҲֻģձģΪκһʵĸ嶼һ࣬ðάɭɵĻǿ˵ʵ֮УҲͬһģжٸҲж[40]Ȼһһ壬ıʵȻġʵԸ⣺ΪԵһ䱾ʾ͸ǾԵˡ簢˵ȻǾԵģôĸĸԼĸ㲻ʺ[41]

ôڸʵԣ־ԵıɵأΪ˻شһ⣬DzָϵĸһǸ廯ԭ۶ϣȷֻо޶άȵָ廯ԭ򣬶ԭһʣԭԴ˼Ҳ˵ǰϹ涨Ϊʵ廯ԭ򣬱ϿǸʵ廯ԭ򡢸Դ͸ݡ뽫ΪָָӦǻʽ廯ʽ ֡հǵĽͣʽһձԣ־ձԵʽ䱻廯ʱΪʵ֮ʽΪʵ屾ʹ֮ʽͬڵʵ£ʽΪһ־ʵԣʽûϵ´ڣĸ廯ǽϣǽɵģʱʽ廯ʽһ[42]Ǹϣʣʵ£ΪʵɲֶԣʽһϽ϶廯˵ģ˵һָ廯ʽҲת˸øⱾʡһԲͬʵ壬Ǿҵ˲ͬĸ廯ԭ򣺶ԣĴڻ廯ԭ򣬶ûϵľʵԣǵʽǸ廯ԭ򣬶͸ʵԣ廯ԭֻǰ䱾֮еָˣһڰǵʵѧ˵оγйظ廯ϵǵˣȷΪʵ廯ԭ򣬲ʹðǴӸŤת˰ͼʿ¶ԸĿҲʹ˰ͼʿͬµһ󣬼ձʽⱾʵĸ[43]ѧ˼ӰԣϳΪʽ廯ԭôҪԾ͵õ˽һԣϲܹʵڵˣӶʹö˵ȫԡԺԵ֤˼ʵĻ

 

ǵıѧ˵Լ֮صʵѧ˵ѧ˼ĽرҪ塣ԴΪ˴뱾ʣԱʴڷʽΪԭԲͬʵͽ֣Ӷͨʶ˵˵ʵʽֿڵĹؼڣΪӱʶ˵ھĺεģĽ[44]춨˻ָʵ屾ʵʵԺͺϳԣѧ˼˵ȫԺԵּȤֱDZԺʹʵԵ֣ѧо˵ԣΪһĴ˵ĴڻʶͿ˾ʮҪ塣оע⵽ʶ˵ͳһԵȷнʹöϺʽȫµѧͳΪҪ[45]ˣرָ廯ʽĸӶѧ˼ʵ˶˵ͳһԵָ֤廯ʽΪıѧ˵ʹѧ˼볬ԽŴ˼ңʵ˴ѧѧת䣬Ӷ˼ʷϹȫ˵ѧ˵[46]Ϊ廯ԭ򣬲ǿΪ廯ԭָϵάԣʹѧ˼ͻԣʹ˵ĸõܵǵѧ˼ʵѧ˵άչģԻǵʵѧ˵䱾Ϊʶ˵ıṩ˼ʵѧϣ˹ѧ߷˹̹بFernand Van SteenberghenΪǵѧ˼˵ıԵѧͱڹ[47]

 

                                  ߵλ人ҵѧԺ

 



[1]        Fernand Van Steenberghen, Thomas Aquinas And Radical Aristotelianism, Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 1980, P.33.

[2]        Զػѧ1500꡷磬199439ҳ

[3]        Robert Pasnau, Thomas Aquinas on Human Nature: A Philosophical Study of Summa Theologia 1a 75-89, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, P.140.

[4]        Զػѧ1500꡷磬1994389ҳ

[5]        εǣ۰ǵıѧ˵ʱѧ̬20068ڣ33-38ҳ

[6]        [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[7]        [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[8]        μ[] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ע105ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[9]        [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[10]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[11]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[12]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[13]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[14]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[15]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[16]       εǣǵıѧ˵ʿµijԽѧо20068ڣ59-65ҳ

[17]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡһ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[18]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡһ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[19]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[20]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[21]       εǣǵıѧ˵ʿµijԽѧо20068ڣ59-65ҳ

[22]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[23]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[24]       εǣǵıѧ˵ʿµijԽѧо20068ڣ59-65ҳ

[25]       Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica,, Q.75 a.4.

[26]       ε ǵıѧ˵ʿµijԽѧо20068ڣ59-65ҳ

[27]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[28]       εǣǵıѧ˵ʿµijԽѧо20068ڣ59-65ҳ

[29]       Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica, , Q.79 a.1.

[30]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[31]       Thomas Aquinas, In Boethii De trinitate expositio, q.4 a.2.

[32]       Jason T Eberl,  Aquinas On the Nature of Human Beings, The Review of Metaphysics, Dec. 2004, PP.333-365.

[33]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[34]       εǣ۰ָѧ˵ıʼѧڽо20064ڣ92-101ҳ

[35]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[36]       εǣ۰ָѧ˵ıʼѧڽо20064ڣ92-101ҳ

[37]       Զػѧ1500꡷磬1994388ҳ

[38]       Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica, , Q.85 a.1.

[39]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡڶ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[40]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[41]       [] Tǣ۴뱾ʡ£ε룬ѧ20071ڣ53-76ҳ

[42]       εǣ۰ǵıѧ˵ʱѧ̬20068ڣ33-38ҳ

[43]       εǣ۰ָѧ˵ıʼѧڽо20064ڣ92-101ҳ

[44]       Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica,, Q.77 a.2.

[45]       Anton Charles Pegis, St. Thomas and The Problem of the soul in the thirteen century, Toronton, Canada: ST. Michaels College, 1934, PP.121-122.

[46]       εǣ۰ǵıѧ˵ʱѧ̬20068ڣ33-38ҳ

[47]       Fernand Van Steenberghen, Thomas Aquinas and the Radical Aristotelianism, Washington. D.C.: The Catholic University of Amercia Press, P70, 1980.