ڷǴ˼˵ʷ𣿣

Ļо

ڷǴ˼˵ʷ

һ׮йعDe Gubriantʷ

 

 

Abstract: Mgr. Jean Budes de Gubriant (1860-1935) is a well-known French Missionary, Father Superior of Missions trangres de Paris (MEP) from 1921-1935, who was sent to China by  the Holy See as an apostolic visitor in 1919.  He engaged in a canonical visitation for the following two years. For a long time, Chinese scholars and western ones differed strongly in their judgment of Mgr de Guebriant.

Some consider him as a great Missionary, one of pioneers, such as, Celso Costantini ,pursuing the path of Indigenization of Catholic Church in China during the 20s-30s of the twentieth century.  Others hold an opposite view, especially the Chinese scholars.  The latter think he is a conservative in safeguarding the interests of foreign colonists.

The thesis examines the historical controversies about Mgr. de Gubriant through a visual court composed by 16 scholars--- 8 against  and 8 for; They try to analyze and clarify the cause of historical controversies about Mgr. de Gubriant, at the same time, to reflect and reexamine the objectivity of historical judgment.

 

 

ͨͼʷѧ߶1919͢פйĽѲʹϯMgr. De GubriantȻʷУͼñȽѧķͷʷѧ·һ׮ʷġʷ͹ԡɡ

 

һ һ׮ʷͥ¼

      

       ڽйضʮͳйػ˶оʱѧͬһʷ¼ʷʱԴռзIJԵȺͲԣʷϵļ죬ijЩ˵£ΪȻľ󡣸ΪȤǣ˫ѧϵĸͺЩԶ׼ͶĿǰΪֹΪ˫֪ⲻܲ˵һź顣

ͬʱͶǰʷʷоļ飬Լʷ׷ǵжʧȥǰĹ⻷ͻȻеͣһ˳ƽȴƺվֵͷıҪ˼ʷеġʵʷĿ͹ԡԼʷѧĽ͡ЩʷѧĸǶʷʷо⣬ȷʷоЧ⡣

       Ҿͽѡһ׮ʷչһ

       һǣ1919͢פйĽѲʹ̻ⷽʿϯΪ̶֤϶һʷĿ͹۷ѧߵУͬʱѡȡ8ѧΪָط8ѧΪ绤һڡչйشһʷϷͥȻ16ѧߺͱ˶ϸϵʷѧߺʷֻһͬóֵķʽ

 

ʷϷͥ

˱̻ⷽʿ1860ڷһͥ1885죻ͬ10Ĵ̣1890ĴԶ̣1916ιݽ̣1919722ձ͢ίΪѲʹйȫܱߵн[1]1921ѡΪ᳤̻ܻⷽ1924걻Ӳ193546ȥ

 

һ19191020գΪѲʹִϺټһҮջʿойƣָʾڡʥ־Ϸرš̻귴ԡչ͡ѧΥӦ񷣴֡[2]˾ٱΪзйͽжɡ

 

϶꣱µﱱ󣬹йת͢ġйʾ飬ָ˾ѡʵ顱һʥͼδõ᳹δӼ֮ѣ[3]Ϊз֮ɡ

 

꣱£գգڱ֧ٿ̻飬ڣ£Խ͢ʹݷֱ˾顷Lettre-circulaire aux prtre du Tchli Maritimeֱ̽磬ָʾӦãһ֮˵ۡ۵ĵ۽̻ģ½ʿۡ[4]˾ٱΪйѱﰮ֮飬Ҳ˳ӦʱΪʿ̻˸ӡ

 

ԡ¼[5]ĵԼ¼λԶP. LebbeأP. Cottaֱŷ޵ĴʽǷǷʡ¼У̶ű»Paul Dumond󲿷ַDzʹʿͬŻʿԶؼ౾˾ڽ̻ڲγ̬ȽȻɣһַ֧¹ռ䷨磻һ򷴶ԡ˫ߵ͢籨ٷ֮ࡣ֮ںʷѧһΪ̷ִ֮·֮뿪ɷĹһжбΪаӱɵɡ

 

 

ͬʱڵѧ̻ʿԹָ绤

 

طӪ

 

һ  ಮҮջʿңң

 

ԹIJҪ϶

й϶ɲμ½ڱ˵ţ<Ͻ>ڸĵУಮֱԲڱ˱֮ԴŵԭίͶԹֵ̰ת

ԶɰDzѲʹ̣ȥʮһ¼䰲ݰѵɣȥɱ𴦳Ķʮνϵʥѯ֮׼ѾƳ顣ʸҾ飬俼̶ͬ磬Ҽ֮ϣø֮ƶ࣬ʥͳȼһۣĶʮһֽһǧŰٶʮ¡[6]

 

Ų̻ʷѧߣ̻ᱳ

 

ԶԹҪĺ϶

ΪԶ׫дĴǡԶ񸸴Уᵽڵ顰¼ʱ񸸵ǣǺģûȫӶ̵ͬʱΪգҪ뿪йŵ˵ҪⱣ֤˿գܾƭһδʵֵŵԿǡǡһɽдʡ

ͬʱ϶ָʱɢĽʾ飺һй̣˾ѡ32޹ɾΪ28ಮһʣ28ĽнΪе硰Ȩ֪ȥ򡣼28ΪֻǽʼĻɢ̣תȫһٴʵǵò᳹ģΪ̽Ϊˣû˿һжú͵һףʥ̵ĶԻǿһЧԣ䱻ףʥΪй̺󣬲ڱÿһĿ¼¼ѹȥ֮áͬʱںӱع˾½ڵУҲᵽ򷨼̣C. Guillouxѯʴʱ⵽ߵʹ⡣

 

·У̻ʷѧߣ

 

ΪŲӣõʷϺ͵óĽۻʦ಻Զ˵DzԶ˵ôȻƺǷ񶨵ġȻһλʿֽ֧͢Ҳַ֧ıȨȻ޷ֵ۹Խ£ҪȻDz̫ܵġ[7]

¶ԹҲĺ϶

϶ָ͢DzʱΪ㷺˽֢ᣬ32------ ķɷĺ3228֪һЩرɾˡͬʱҲಮڹָȷˣɴ˾ɼʱй̻и⼮̵Ŀ̬ȣ̷Ѵ̡

ġ»ϼ̳ԵıͽۣijЩϸг롣ڴرݶȨDzŷһ£ģΪ˻й̻мĶ󣬹͢ݣҪ뿪йҲһм֤˶ݶȨĴ[8]

صȥ򣬳˵˰DzʹԺԺûгϵҲȥɣʲôҲ[9]һ䴦IJ

 

ģ˳̻ʷѧߣ

 

˵ʷʱĹϵԵĽ׼ʷ۵ĺۼ۹ԭίʱƲģ͢õйͽμӷ۰˶DzѲʹǰй[10]

˶ԹҪһ

һ۹ڡʥ־ϵġرģΪ۹Ա绤򰮹ͽжꡮαʾԴ˴ѧͽΥӦ񷣴֡ԴŽͽ[11]

˶ȡƽ׵мԼ͹ֵжϡйͽ˵:򲻿Ϊʾٶ֮죬򲻿׼̹֮ŮѧУ¡Ըʿͽְ֮---¿ᡯ[12]

 

壩񣨽̻ʷѧߣ

 

˶Թۼһ

һ۹ġرģ̵Ϻ󣬡ټһҮջʿойƣָʾڡʥ־رص̻ϵ귴԰չѧΥӦ񷣴֡[13]

϶ڡй̱ʷУ˼Ա͢32ɾΪ28ûȫ[14]

ͬŲһûעǴӦܵԺͳµĽ۵Ӱ죬ǣ֮·У˵ĿΪ϶Һܶԭģм价ڱȷƵ˹ͷϣ硰ɾΪ28ûȫ

ͬڸУΪ⡰ָ̻ڲİ˶͸ĸ˼߽һרйᡷУ۹ġֱ˾顷ģݡֱ˾顷ΪԵطӳ˵ʱ̻ᵱֵܾн̻ĸ------ ֮£ϵǽ̻ΪǿĸӹҲǺܺ顣[15]רԲͬʱڣǿҵԺ͵жϾ֮һ֮

 

ޣ̻ʷѧߣ

 

ڹѲʹһְ֮ԭί˷ģʱŲŽְΪ¼֮棬˾ɹΪйѲʹе顱[16]

ڹۣص۶Ҫһ̷10̸ϺʡʱϺѧμӡġ˶۹Ӷ෽ֹƻδЧ۹ҦProsper ParisSJ־岻͢档ʹȹѲģҦ̼۹˵ѧ˶ΪƻΪʥͳβֹάȨˣҹٳ㣬ԵΪҲ[17] ϾҦֱӱΪ۹ӡʾȫֳߺ̴ʿͬʻ߹ͬɫʡ

ġѯйء¼ľԭίʱἰ¼ϸ˵оٶȰ˾ֻ֮ΨΨ򵹷δоʣ޿κΣֻзܡ[18]˶λϲûжԹⱾ˽еУɽ仮鵽ʿͷ֮С

Լڻ̻ϣ⼮̶Դ̽ѧμӾȹ˶ȡ1118չԡѲʹͷηֱ˾顷СɴͷʾŮѧӶСˣ֮оӡ[19]

ӻر˵ķԼԶ׼Ľ׼ʷۺǿҵʶ̬ͬʱĺͽۣԼ¼۾ûϳѧ۵Դۿۡ

 

ߣ̻ʷѧߣ

 

ԶԹϼڹ⿴ŽȺڵİжд䷴Ӧģ龰Ϊ------δڱٿ˻̻飬뻪̣ˣܼ飬ȡѹֶԸͽжǣ£շһƪ˾顷[20]

µУ

ԶԸǣƪĸ棬쾡µر¶ĵ۹ĸзǿġ򡯣ʵǶйʩԣɱӶᣬϷֵĵ۹򡣡ΪҪء򡱣֡ȶ˶֮⣬ǡظԤȺйͽİж[21]

ĺͻڷٳֵĵѧ൱ԣһǻںнٶȷ

 

ˣ͢פʹ ٸԹԱ

20072£ٸܵط͢פʹ19221118дʱٸԹ˹һױšἰʱ᳤̻ܻⷽŰݷãպ㱻Ϊפһ´Ӳ̽ڻɵĿܺڸŶ˽ļֵһIJοֵ˽ȫԱܴȲܵʷѶϢͺ塣

 

ԸպϯΪפһµķӦ[22]

1644

⣺פ

 

͢פʹ

19221118

 

𾴵ĸ

˹

͢

ٸ

 

𾴵ĸ

ϰ̻ⷽܳϯŰݷãһżɽض˵˴ǰΪ̣ͬҪܿ쳶һλյù⹫ļϣλһλˣԴ⹫йʱʶˡλڹܳʱ䣬ԶΪעҶԷйӰһȤŨλضԹϯ˵ڱֽϷһԷפ͢ʹݺפ͢ʹԼɶJonnartĿ˶һжͬʱҲ͢

ϯѯôɣλߴ˵ΪЩ³˵պϯΪפһٴؽзʿIJ

ϯ跨ƽ˾ŭȰЩͬʱڱֽۣΪ㹻ȷеϢȻת

𾴵ĸְͼùϯףDzպϯפһ£˿Ϊ⽻ʡһûἰԴʮ𣬾͵ۣԽ͢йפʹΪؿ͢йפκδԹʥͳƺͽ½ٵģʷƾõĴ

ȻأϯܿԱְĻΪ棬㣬ҲλڴеҪ𰸡ϯҽ˵Ϊ޸ݵִ֮ԣҪڱֽϾijЩҪ֮㡱¶

ϯἰģǡʱTempsϯ˵ʵĻڡʱϿһͨɴ¡

ְϯظ˵һʾþǷбҪڱֽϿһжҪԼ͢ɵDzպϯΪפ֮ٴ룬Ҳ˵ǷֹͬᵽλߵвжΪԷһҿϯȲҪڡʱἰ£ңڴ£ϸܡ

    ֮ͺ򯾴֮ģʥĺۣ

[23]

 

緽Ӫ

 

һ   ڱӻʮһ

 

ڱӻʮһڹϯȥʱĸǹ׶۵춨̻ڲԼѧ߶ԹϯеʱĻʱΰͽ֮һ[24]

 

  Զʱʿй̻ᱳ

 

Ϊ¼ĵˣйֱӺ͹򽻵ľ˸ȻкǿȨԺͲοֵ꣱£գ״Ϻ˹ټ͵顣ԭͬ׵ţһЩϸб׵˵Ƿˣֻ޳Ұ˷֣޹غּˡ˵һλ֮ˣǴȸֳȻˣĻ̹ϣû˵ʲôҪ£ΪֻڵĿʼ[25]

 

  պ㣨һפ̣

 

193536ȥ󣬸պͬ313յġ۲ұϷ׷ۣ⹫һһѲʹйʵʥDzɴפȺӡɴǿ֪Ǵίεشԡ------ʱ⹫᳤д飬Ĵֻؽ޳ҵļƻУʹ־Ըʵ֡ڶͺ̳˰½ã̻λҲ־ѻ᳤ڻһ£ּ̻Ϊﱸؽij⹫ǰͻʵļ̳ˡľӪиıؽ֡[26]

պ㻹жᵽйڼ䣬ִ᳹н͢ߵϡԴʿ⽻ʱպڽһ󼲡һһŻ٣й֮ɱȡǿ֮⽻սطʥͳơеͷһպΪ˹͢ϡ[27]

1931꣬԰᳤̻ܻⷽݣӷ8¶ԸûӡйձĴѲ֮ڴ418ִﱱƽͬպȹˡ족1932420յռУպ㼫䶯ػ˹Լʹһְʱľǰڡ۲ұϷ׷ᵽļ㹦֮⣬պ㻹ΪڵѲʹʱٿ̻飬Լ1924Ϻٿĵһȫ̴ṩǰڵ̵Ҫ׼[28]

ͬʱպԹǣһн˼ΰˣڸݽ겵ؿ⣬ͬʱֱŻԾ̬һ̬ʹԱ֡ʱ la pageΰڱʮͱӻʮһƶĴ̸ĸ븴бֲһ£ഺ[29]

 

ģɳJean Charbonnier, ̻ⷽᴫʿ̻ʷѧߣ

 

ΪͬŻʿɳԹǼͿ϶ġרйͽʷУɳᵽ˹͡¼һºԶе̸ԼȰԶŷ޵ijԡ1919꣬ѲʹϯȡԶߺλΰĴʿŹͬĵ⣺ͨйαְŷ޽ӴйѧΪڵ֧һҵԶͬⷵŷޡǡʱ򣬱ʮӦɲֳɫʵıʿ̸ط̻ᡣ[30]

 

壩̹Claude Soetensʱ̻ʷѧ

 

̹Ϊ19181225ύ͢Ų25ҳıУԡγɹࡣ

һᵽĵһҪ漰̵ְ𣺡ְһΪ֮ꡱְֶ֮ȫп٣ཨΣΪպ˾֮롱ְ֮͡˼޵Ż֮ڹıжһһ漰⣬ԤԵԺȡ[31]

ἰĵڶҪ㣬ʿļְ磺ְһּȤĸ֮ϡְֶ˽ְ֪֪Ҫ֪ʶճ⣩ְģ촫̴ġĴְ𣬳һְû漰⣬µڹıҲһһἰ⣬ñлҪظ͢ıظ˲Ҫרű[32]

 

ɶRuggero Simonato̻ʷѧߣ

 

ɶԸպй̻ıػдԼ⡣оУΪպִػ߷ȷλ֧ʵָ͢ʾĺߣκïκǰιһⷽĻӦߣԼĹ˾աԣԻ壩 ɶȻûڴǽΪպִСػ߷ͬ·ˡ [33]

ͬӻڹΪһȫ̴ٿеijﱸĹ׺Ծԡ1920ףѲʹͨתŲй֪ͨΪһ̴Զڳﱸ֪ͨڴѯδҪȫ̴۵ĸ⡣[34]

 

ߣģ˾죬й÷̻ʷѧ[35]

 

ĶԽ͢йϵгڵĹ۲оԹ̬ȣר͢йжԡĸ߶ȿ϶һߣ

1919걾ʮ幫ˡͨͣȫׯһµĴĵʹ̹ձĸĸͬʱʮɹ㶫Ĵ̻ⷽʿ̣Mgr. Gubriant M.E.Pս̻ᷨ䣬Ӳйϱ̽лǵİţӲ͵ʹȡ˺ܴijɹйפһδ˵·[36]

 

ˣᣨGiuseppe Butturini̻ʷѧߣ

 

رĸϲ⣬ԹȴϵĵŬȻ෴ġµĴŲⶨʾ19187·šЩֱָйҪһְյǡô磬õֻйڵλʿ------ĴʿԵһʴǿȱ⣬йԵյȣȻûзЩҪԣȴע˾ĵλ⣬ŷΣԣԱ˾кĿ̲ݻԼʿ뱾˾ƽȹϵȣɴΪй̵ʱѳ죬һʱдʱա------ϹķغԶ񸸵Ļ¼ĴͳԼ̶ʾĴ𸴣ĵ壬ҲһӦ˶ˡ[37]

ȻʷǹڹݴϣѲʹ֮ǰԽ͢͡ĸȡĵĻӦҲ˽͢˵εĴŲʶŴٳ˹֮ΪѲʹ߼̺Զ׼ġ

 

 

 

һۣʷĿ͹ԡλ֪

ߣʷ֮һռٲ

 

ٲһȻһϵijԲͼһʷȡһʷϣҲеʷԴУ߸Ȩͼһʷվֵԭͺһ

һеʷϷֻͥвϵĺϷԣΪر˫Ȼͬһ϶ȴ޷ͬһʱգ𣬿ռҪѴ½Թͬɣ߶ġʵϽԵıѡ

ͬʱͨԿر˫ɵѧʽ֣Ƿ֣ر˫ʷռϵƫ˫Ա˵Ȼִһңǿ˫һɱľ֮dzͬ˫ɸԵʷʷĻɳʷжϾһĺϷ֮⣬ȻһַǴ˼˵ʷУһߵؽԹǵĵʷۣȻڿر˫ΪٲߵƺʷռкԻӵиơͬʱر˫ĹʺһʷۣǶԱ˹֪øӷḻˣңҲǶʷеijЩԱʵõһ̶ȵϡ

 

ٲͬ緽ȣطеѧߣŲ񣬻޺˵ݸ˲ǿǣ;˵ͨ˵ѧԳ䵱ף⣬ijЩӦǿѧ淶磺ijȷעȶֵòĻĹ˼Ʊʹ漰¼ʱص㡢۾Բ֤ͿмʷĿ͹Ժ߼ӡ֤ĺԡ

 

ٲر˫ͬһʷʵжʱǰȴǽȻбġӢʷѧֶʲW.H. Walsh˵һ׮ʷʵϲϲʵģǵǴӸʵתɵʱǾͱȽϲװѸ˵Ŀˡ[38]1919걻ίΪ͢Ѳʹһ£ڱ緽ίһ¶ڽ͢н̻᱾ػԺ·߼һǰҲһֽһֻҪԼӲοպ㣬ƺԼĵ˵ı㲻ѿ⣬˫Ӫ֮⣬ijЩѧߣ̻ʷרڣAgostino GiovagnoliǷŴ˿ĵҰͼί֮ṩĽ͡￴ڷǿԤ˫18861918νԾʧܣίһһʷȡһµͻ뻥19189£͢йĹϵȷֹˡʧܿ191911½͢DzûӲ;[39]

˳͹ԭίʱԵĽ׼ʷ۵ĺۼ͢õйͽμӷ۰˶DzѲʹǰй

ڹѲʹһְ֮ԭί޵ķΪ¼µĽ̻ڲġ֮Ӧ߼ʱŲŽְΪ¼֮棬˾ɹΪйѲʹе顱

ԳĽ޵ƣңԵĿǴж͢ȻIJκͶ᣺ꣶ£ίɹ̹ԡѲʹݱϣν顯

ʵϣ191942ʱŲױʺУжѲʹίԭίְ𼰷ΧڵȷȷرڹϯԴ֮Ϥ֮ḻŲȻͬίɽ͢פйѲʹ֮飬ԿϣʿְиҪּ֮֮ʩǷõϣЯͬʱҲȻͬѡͨй֣ϰ߼ĻظĻȳ֮֮飬Ϊϯḻ֮׿֮Ÿɣʵ˵δ˼Ҫ֮ϼѡѲʹѲйȫܱߵ֮񡣡[40]

һ·ֵʷϣƺѿijһʷ¼ԭӺһɲ⣬ΧƸ¼ϵжȻżȻԳȴ޷׼ĵӹ켣һ㣬ڱǶʱ伴ԭӳ߶ȰʵϵĽжϡ

 

ٲģϿ·ֵʷƺԿطΪݣڽݺ͹֮䣬ڲͬʱвͬIJءڽӵ19185´ŲΪѯŵʾʱΪ֮ıߣڽ͢ͻƷõϰɹйDzפʱַѾĻرɣΪƽϢĵIJ͵͢פʹ̽һƺر˫ִƽ֣ôԭе̫עյ²ƺŤתȫ֣ٲһ֮

һЩεٲƺʷѧ֮С

 

 

һʷʷѧҵĹϵ

 

ʷѧҵĹһʼһҪʷȷĽͣȴ޷ֱʷʷѧԵԶֻͨͬȡģȨԺͿʲβףʷϣʵżΪǣȡҲ˵ʷѧұʷӰӺʷʷиԭͽͣһ֮ҲʷѧͬȻѧص㣬޷ͨϵظͬһʵ̣һŻӶʵЧݡ

 

ʷоغͿ͹

 

ʷоָʷѧڿչʷо֮ǰЯ߼Ԥ;鴢ѧǰᣬʱԣԣĻкͬԣ׼ԣԣԣԼijֿݵʷʶԭ򣬲֮ΪʷоǰԤ衣Ҳ˵ʷһƬնҪŵʷѧܽܺͬĵ»޶͡

ʷоĿ͹أӢʷѧֶʲ˵ԴǶȥ⣬һǷۣһڹۡǰָʷʷʵָʷֻ֪ԵģDzܶʷȫ֪ĹֻԲ˵

ۺ򲻶Ƕʷ֪ԵȷƵԭʷǶͺ֪ȴעһƶɳ𡱡

       һʷѧ

 

Ϊʷѧѧصʵ֤Ժ鹹

 

Ĺ鹹Ҳпѧʵ֤ʷѧֻǽģչġʷʵȻԹȴ⡣ǰ߸ѧ˵̣ΪӮ˿ռ䡣

      

ģ͹۵ʷҪΪʷ;һϯ֮

       ˼ʷУʷѧҿҪΪijֿܵᷢչ£ˣڸʷдĸ뵱ȻػһӦ?ʵϣʷ;ijʹʷΪʽø΢ͺϺˡ

磬·ֵĵΪǴĦΪԺͼֵṩ֤ݡͬʱ޺˵ľͼ̰ʷۣ׼۵ȣɶԹʷжϣùǣǿǡǡΪлоĽޡ

 

壩ʷоߵľޣƺȱ

 

ʱʣѧ߶ǰѧݲͬʷʱڣͬд׵óʷ۽ܼıȽϷʱһ棬ʱλãʹܹһȫβǣһ棬ҲǾԵģΪǨԵʣǰʷ׵ȱͺоɹɢº߶Էʷ¼еijЩһߣ

 

ԣ㲻Ͻ۵Ľ

 

֮ϵķҪһ֪Ķʷо۾Уͼڲʷо΢֮ͬʱǵԼ֪ʶֵжԭʼijЩ׶ʷϷӦʱйϵijɷ֣߾ܵʹԭͽ֮߼ԵøΪ

 

 

                                                        ߵλйѧԺڽо

 

 



[1] ˴תԱʱѧ̹Clause SoetensԶݱ༭ףΪй̻֮һ1919-20פѲʹPour lEglise Chinoise, I. La Visite apostolique des missions de Chine, 1919-20, XIIҳ³ѧ磬1982ꡣΪ͢ίΪѲʹ1919ꣶ£գ񣺡й̱ʷڣҳϺͳ漯ţꣴ°棬Ϻ˵һʷпѧġֹ̻ͽһƪĸ桪<˾>һģڸУȷָ͢ڣꣶ£ίɹ̹ԡѲʹݱϣν顯ڽѡڣҳڲ档꣬ͬʱݱڰⷽܲݷֵף1919722ȷΪ͢ʽί״䷢ڣıΪ1697/919ʵϣͬ42գŲCardinal Van RossumºΪפйܱߵѲʹһְʹҲǡǡǹ˵ĴڣGubriant 1655-02,29-30ҳ̻ⷽᵵݣArchives de MEP

[2] ʥ־ڣڡϺɽ棬Ϻ1919

[3] ά ಮļڣҳѧ磬Ϻ1996

[4] 뱾һಮ뱾¼һһʮһʮѲʹ鲢ءಮڣҳꣴºšʥ־뱾ڡֹ̻ͽһƪĸ桪<˾>ΪҪıġȫ˾졷Ȼⲻͬ뺯֮ԭһֱδоҰС߽ڰ̻ⷽܲݷָú֮ģ˺ɶ뱾ĿŶԼѧߵ൱οֵڣGubriant 1655-02,44-46ҳ̻ⷽᵵݣArchives de MEP

[5] 19159£¿׵٣Alexandre Maurice Robert Contyͼռһ30ĶأҪ󸽽й򷨹˰ǿҷԡ191610£ʿȻռͬʱٻй30ĶػΪ硣ĸ߼ְԱַ֧жڱʱʿԶĽ£й֯չУ̱󣬷ֻòٻط£黹¼ڽ񣬵ɴȴ̻ڲķ磬ɺűĸɵ·֮

[6] ͬע3384ҳ

[7]·Уй̵ıػ˶˶ʿģ130ҳ̨19916¡

[8]ͬϡ

[9]ͬϡ

[10]˳ʿй290ҳϺͳ漯 Ϻ磬Ϻ20047¡

[11]ͬϡ

[12]ͬϡ

[13]񣺡йᡷ476ҳϺ磬Ϻ19965°档

[14]񣺡й̱ʷڣҳϺͳ漯ţϺ2003ꣴ°档

[15]ͬע13476-477ҳ

[16] ޣ¼ƬΡءڽѡڣҳڲ档꣬

[17] ͬϡ

[18] ͬϣڣҳ

[19] ͬϡ

[20] ͬϡ

[21] ͬϣڣҳ

[22] 1922612ոպӵŲţ֪ͨΪֱ118յִۣų繫

[23] ٸܵݣA.S.V, Cina-Japone, Pos. 4 , Fasc. 16.

[24] μR .P.A. FlachreϯBiographie du Mgr. De Gubriant13ҳ̻ⷽѧԺ19356ҳ档

[25] ŲԶ񸸴309310ҳҫСֵܻ棬̨У19633°档̹Զϱ༭ġΪй̻֮һ1919-20פѲʹУԿڴԶдص˽˺УԹҲΪ棬һ䡰ܼбmalgr sa reserve extrme֮182-183ҳ³ѧ磬198

[26] ƺ󣺡׷̡ءʥ־19355ڡ

[27] Celso Costantini, Con i missionari in Cina (1922-1933), Memorie di Fatti e di Ide, Volume I, p.143, Unione Missionaria del Clero in Italia, Roma, 1946.

[28] ͬVolume II, p. 335.

[29] ͬp. 336.

[30]Jean Charbonnier, Histoire des Chretiens de Chine, p.252, Les Indes Sanvantes, Paris, 2002. Թʷγɵɳڸߵĵʼ̹ᵽϯڷֳʱһʷıСһ棬ΪȰйа̵ⷽĴͳҲϣйԼй̻ᡣǣΪһ̤ʵʵˣһʵ̬ȡй̻ĹȨȨȫʿУˣΪй񸸺Ըѡ⣬Ҳע⵽йĽ̻ḺԼʱû㹻ȷ̻治ܵ𺦡

[31] Claude Soetens, La Svolta della Maximum Illud, Roma e Pechino, pp. 84-85Edizioni Studium, Roma. 1999.

[32] ͬ86ҳ

[33] Ruggero SIMONATO, Celso Costantini tra rinnovamento cattolico in Italia e le nuove missioni in Cina, p. 85  Edizioni Concordia , Pordenone, 1985.

[34]ͬϣ90ҳ

[35]ģϺˣڷ졣1943꿪ʼڷ⽻ʷѧԺԺʿƤŬPierre RENOUVINָ£о̴ʷзϵʷ1957ȡðѧʿѧλСԻߡĩ̺ͨʹɣ1842-1856͢й

[36] ߼ 룺͢йp.3ӡ

[37] G. Butturini, Il <Problema delle Missioni>, Roma e Pechino, Edizioni Studium, Roma, 1999.

[38] Ӣֶʲʷѧۡ186-187ҳʦѧ磬֣2001

[39] Agostino Giovagnoli (a cura di) , La svolta extraeuropea di Benedetto XV, Roma e Pechino, Edizioni Studium, Roma, 1999.

[40]ڣGubriant 1655-02,29-30ҳ̻ⷽᵵݣArchives de MEP