йԻڽֵ̼Ľ룭

Ļо

 

 

 

 

ԽİijײйĻԻڽֵ̼Ľ

Ƚ֪ʶ뵱ǰѧԻڽ̵

 

 

                                                        

AbstractThis thesis is intended to analyze the acceptance of Christian values by Chinese indigenous culture through the comparison of the similarities and differences between the criticism of the intellectuals in late Ming dynasty and those contained in current popular literature. Both criticisms are natural reactions, without many external forces, of the indigenous culture in face of the challenge from a different civilization. The objection to Christian values of the intellectuals in late Ming dynasty was in defense of the superiority of Chinese culture; while, the discussion of Christianity by the current popular writers is a complex one with the instinctive consciousness to defend traditional culture as well as values from mainstream culture education and commercial culture. Therefore, through the comparison of the two sets of criticisms, it is our belief that it is easy, for us to trace the changes and development of logic of Chinese indigenous culture in these 400 year

 

 

ڽ죬ڽĻѹǡйͳ˼Ļһ֡ˡ[i]ǷζŻڽֵ̼ѳΪһйԶϡԷѭһֵּء˵й˵ճڶ̶˻ڽɫʵļֵָأΪ⻹ҪıͼͨȽ֪ʶ뵱ǰѧлڽֵ̼IJ֮йĻԻڽֵ̼ܵһ

Խǻ֪ʶ뵱ǰΪȽ϶ҪǻµĿǡ߶Իڽ̵лڱĻĻսȻӦû̫أû̫ͼǿҲûʶ̬Ĺ淶Ҫ󣨵ǰѧⷽıDZȽɵģǻ֪ʶӷԻڽ̣Ϊ˺йĻԽλǰ̸ۻڽ⣬ڽΪӵбܺͳĻʶҲĻҵĻ̼ء֮ʣΪߵıȽ׼йĻļֵж߼400ı仯չĹ켣

 

һķǻ

 

ȥ󣬻ڽֵ̼йĻĺļֵIJԵͻϾ̰νֲֵͬϵҳײȺӡ

֪ʶ̴ʿͽҪۡۡۺ͹Ұȫ⼸档

̸̸˫۷ľ޴硣

һֳ˼ȻҪ漰紴Դ⡣˫ʶĴڲƾնģӦһԴˣΪӦԴֳһ򯾴֮ġս˫һDZȽһµġ[ii]

˫ƺ͵ΪֹˡΪ˼Դʱ򣬾ͲҪ˼Ϊ֮ԣйĻڽһʼо޴ķ硣

˵йԭ롰ϵۡĹѼΪӽڻڽ̵ϵ۹ۣŷ֪ͽУҲ֪ʲôŴDZй˷ٴˡ[iii]йȻȫǾܳڽ̵˸񻯵ϵۣ[iv]Ϊ塢й죨Ȼ˵Ƕ洴ռܵĽʾ[v]

ڶԴ߸λȫͬ˫˶ĶĽҲȫͬġڻͽ֮е֮˶޲İĿģй˼ȴΪĵȻģвһ˸񻯵Ŀ[vi]

ĹϵͳУ˼Ϊڽ̵ʱۡλһ˵ҲȫȻ޻ġġ[vii]

˫Ĵ۷dz˹ϵ۵Ҳûʲô֮ͬ

ڽΪΨһĴߣȻα

йĻеռ졢ȻȻΪһĬľԣֱĸ˴򽻵־ͨ־˾ְoȵӢʾ[viii]й˼ڶԾ֪ϣȻ㱧һֶԪ̬ȣԻڽ̵ȽϷУΪһֶΡ[ix]ǵȻҲΪڽ̶йͳǡȳݵκεġ[x]ȳʶйʽѧ/ѧĻҲйۡ۵Ļ

˼߶Իڽ˹ϵһҪڻڽ̵۷档˼Ϊڽȱƽȵ˼ߵĵλ[xi]

˫ڹ۷ķ

ڽ̵۱ܵ˵һȶΪڹйڶԵģȻҲ϶ȡ˷̵ۡҵ۵˼룬˵һȶȵĴڹۡ

˼ʶйͳĻڽѧ˵ĸ硣ǶԻڽļĹ˼ҵдԵľۡڽǿ֮ΪΪ˶СԲƻжꡱ[xii]һЩΪ˵ڶˣȷָһ޷Ĺ[xiii]ǻΪûлͲãûаĵġ[xiv]ۣڽ̵˵˵Ҳȫܳġ[xv]

ڽ̵ʼ˵ԭʿҲָܻժ˵ȻǴȫܵģΪʲôǵ޵ʱ򣬲⸳ȫƵأ[xvi]Ϊر͸ǵν־񲻾ͳ˶ŪĵϷ[xvii]Ϊڽ̶ֶֿΣûг۵ķ롣[xviii]

Ϊۡԭ˵еЦڽĺġҮջijݣʿоЩɽ⡣ΪʲôһҪҮղܵþȣΪʲôһʮֵּܵôΪʲôͽֻ£ֻ˲ܵþȣ˵˵Үǡҵ飬˽Ұǧڳӡ[xix]˵ڽѧ˵һѧ˵

ȻҮյֵûɣôҮճŵľ[xx]Үձʮּܵ[xxi]ҲûʲôʥԿˡָǵ޵Ȳ͵һƻǵĺȴҪܵӲIJпͷЩͷʵй֮ӡ[xxii]

лڽ̵µͬʱ˼ǿָҵĵ֮ȣȫԽԺ;ϵĸ߽ࡣѧлͷЩڽߵĻֵʱ˵ ̹Ĵİ˳ڶϵ۵İϵй֮ûκֵ෴й˵ĵ̵ҪʴֻҪ˻δ䣬˵ǺȻġͨչȻĽкͲУ˲ܽӽһȻģʽǻۣ򡣡 [xxiii]

ֵǿģȻТ˵ĸ̫ףĸ塣[xxiv]йȻͬ˵̫׵飬ѵͲԴ𣿿ңȻ̫׵ܷ༥˵֮ԴΩIJ[xxv]

йʽҲĩʿ˽Ϊǿһ㡣ǶԻڽйͳơԶIJͬ൱ʶ[xxvi]Ǵһ̸йԹۣǿ䷢ҡҵǿԿع֮ͨҲ֮ïȻض˳ɡ[xxvii]ڽ뿪һ㣬ȥ̸ʲô[xxviii]֮࣬ʵǶԱԭʥ֮ѧԭġԻߣ֮ġδҲ֮죬ѪϤľʯӡ[xxix]ǻָָԵʵʾͰйʽռ֮˺һ[xxx]

Ƕ˵ļжйʿͽ˵ȫͬġǻͽþȵ·ϵһڣйʿ˵ֱӾdzԽʵ[xxxi]

˼ע⵽йĻڽ̾ʵĸҲ졣Ϊڽ̴ӱ˵һ֡ѧ˵й˼뾡ܲرܶ˼˵һ֡ѧ˵[xxxii]

һЩԮҵĹڽӦ[xxxiii]ҵ˵[xxxiv]һЩϳıĹ۵㡣Щ۵йѧ˵죬ڽ̹ĶȴΪԡӦ˵ǹҵ˵ǿΪɶԼҪԡһΪĺֻΪŷûйϵӦԶԣгų壬κⲿ̻֯ȣȻûȨⲿжˡ

ʿ봫ʿشҲڶ̬֯ʶϡ򵥵˵˫аȫͬġвйΪڽ̵ĵĽ룬ʵйͳνġ֮Ρ[xxxv]ȴΪʵȫͬڽ̵˵һѡ

Ϊڽ̵ѧ˵õĨƽ˵ȻĵȼʵʷʵϵͳΪĵľȼ[xxxvi]Լйصһ׵ȼơģʶֵȼĵ߸ʱȻȽϸ΢ӰȴΪԶ粻Сĵйеĵºδͳĺͷףһ᳹׵ġҰ[xxxvii]

ʵϣȶŽһҪɾǴʿѧƻйͳѧеijЩҪǶdzȼϵķ񶨣ʶַʵ˶ԵϵȼȻϷԵĵ߸[xxxviii]

Ȩʵкελ۵Ľ֮һֱ17ͣȨŷ޵԰żΪҪĽɫȨȨĽһֱŷȨʷĻ֮һйᴫͳȴûƵķաйȨӦȨǷֻڽ̽аijЩȨϵԭʱǵĸ߶Ⱦ衣ʶаĿܵᶯľ޴Σգ֮¡ҲԻԻӡŶƣÿگھ֮£Ի졣ĹϣȻʹѣ󣬺ʴӡ[xxxix]۹ڽ̣ڽıȨΪͬйʷа̵ˡ[xl]ڽ̴ʿĴ漣ȵȣʵǶǵС[xli]

ŮϵҲ۵Ľ֮һdzڷϰ߷ԭĩ޷̻ڽŮӵij档Ļع˵ڽԾܾйʽ֮Ϊⷽвɸ˵аĿģȻԴŮҹɺУػʥͣԮʥˮְ崦֮ý״Ů֮ң¼[xlii]ЩdzڴͳȼŮλǿܶ˷лڽ̵һһơ[xliii]Щ۱ϿǷ֮ʵʸǰȨȨִڽжڶһֿݣŮȷԼ׼Լһ׸ڴͳйᣬάһһΪʥ񣬴Ƕ˵ӦǴġ[xliv]

봫ʿһĹ档̵Ҳűص򣬵йƣԵùڻԾָ𴫽ʿѧ˵˼йǿ˶ã˶İ׷Ϊѧ˵Ϊ֮׼Ķ[xlv]

ԹҰȫ˼Ҳĩ˼Իڽ̵еһҪ档

ΪʲôԻڽ̣ʱû̫ӵɣֻΪв˴İȫԾΪ䴫̻ܷҰȫвΪڽ̵вĸ۶ϣͼйĻеķͳջڽ̵ۣйʷеΰʵ֮Ϊΰ󣬼ʹҲµ[xlvi]йĻķͳδ棿ķͳδ棿ûʥͳйˣ͵ȹ񣬵ȵ˵ͳΣܳеʲôΪеأԣԻڽ̣Ƿʲô˵⣬뷴ۣĽ̻й˷ӡˡͳεŬ[xlvii]

ȻҲһЩ˶Իڽ̵ľֱܳڱġ߷ߵ˵ָҮա߰ߺ[xlviii]ʿˡڽͽһDZȽԣ˵ΪġԱδûдеıʶˣҪǿָһ㡣  

 

İĻ

 

Ͼ̰ʱ䣬ѹȥ˽400ˡ400ǰȣйǰĻڻڽ̵̬ȣַЩҪ仯أ

߼Ľ֮

۷棬ĴʿڽͽһȻܳڽ̵˸񻯵˿ѧۣζѧ˼棬ȻΪйͳ伮й죨Ȼ˵Ƕ洴ռܵĽʾǶԵҡ۵ǿҪԶȻǿǷdzģд߶Եҡ̵伮йѧ˵಻ˣ˶ĶĽͣҵĽͱȽϸӣǷ絮һ˸񻯵Ŀ֮˵ġǰٴƷȻҲС֮˵ڴͨ˶𣬲ңϲȫ֪ȫܡȫƵġ

ҵ˹ϵҲdzӽʱ̸ҲǶԪģͬʱһ㻹ijȳݵζȥȣеĴͳǵʥѾʧǰܹմͼ䳡Ҳ٣Լ飬ָʽҲǵвɷָĹϵDZ£˲ƵĿЦϷԴ񲻵ѵȨ֮ơ

ڷڽһۡԵԾԷ棬ҪԶԶʤʱʿ˶Իڽ̵УҪ档ڵǰڴУǷصеص㡣

棬ұȽȻؽйͳģˣ˼ʱΪЩʲôԽϵϰ⣬Ǵϵ⣬ܷЧóΪȣ˼ǣȻҷ˼Ƚǿңʶڽ̵гͻ֮

ڵۡڹʱҲ֮

ӴҶԳԽԿ˵ǵĴڹһȫȶȵĹˡҲȱһϡ϶Գε񣨻

ȻʱѾȥ˽400꣬һйȻ޷ڽ̵ۡǵʶУ൱ڡʶһһҪͳԽǾͻһDZܻ硰ԪӤ֮Ķô˵ֱꡱ౾ˮƽģ[xlix]Ϊˣڽ̵ʼ˵ԭۡ־ڴ󲿷ִҵͷҲDzɽġ

ҮꡢʮּܶԴ󲿷˵ûʲôʥԿԡྫӢܲŻڽ̣Үձ˼䱻ʮּܵ¼Գ˾⡣ҶԴ˵̬ȼȫĮȻġǴΪģҮΪDzδ񼣣ûʲôɣҮˣôҮԩĹǧǧΪʲôҪ¼˵֮ҮյĴ˵ûʲôġ

ȻѲѧ˵ʵĸԭڱϻ༤ҹԴʣТ˵ȴǿ֪ТѳΪйѧһҪ⡣һЩܵġѧӰϴĴʶҲ֮һѧֵȻ⡣ӹС˵иĸһ㼸ȫǰְŵӹƷУС˵˹ԸɳмȫȱϯģڵǰĴУѺҿԱָĶ״һЩΪ˽ĺĽɫ뵽ĸ֮ԼԻرʱ򣬾ȻҲֳijЩ亱ĸ顣

ѺŷҵۡȰ۳ԽҶ˺һ۵һȻijԽ֮е۸ݣйʽۺ͵/ۡҲ˵йĹûʵϣЩͷˣڵǰС˵ҵı£˵ûжƵѱԵԸ̡νȫֵó޵ġԣйĴС˵еõϵIJͣȻֻһdzεIJͣ

ҵų嵱ȻûʲôϵгиͬǿԱȽϵǣߣ˵жһִֽǿƺţһֻҪжԣ£ȻջֹҲԳ֮Ϊе⡱ۣΪжõ塣

̬֯ʶʿкܴIJ졣һȴȫͬģǶȨλʶϡҹаʽᣬûһȨɫʵġʵϣڽ֯ма̵ʡ

400ǰȣйǰĻijЩֵҲһЩҪ仯ֱ仯Ҫ۷档

ҵģѲʽƣйͳĻº͵ۡ屻Ϊһ˵ġҲΨһ˵Ϊ򡣰˵ʲôԵľԱȻûйϵֻһȨ֮ƣһΪıôΪԷơΪͨΪģʽıȽϣְַʽܹø档һֹƳһۣij£һȫ淴ķʽķʽܹø棬񡱼ֱ

ֹУڳڵǰڴвŵУٲȻΪʱС

ҵı仯ͬǾ޴ġҪĸ档һͳĵȼڵǰѾȻ޴档ڴݹ½룬ֱġʱ̸ۿνݱʹִƶЩңҲûֱ׳ĨɷŬҪԣȼƶΪһʥԽĹ淶ڶŮ̴ĹἰˡȻٴкֵ׵飬Ҳζش̸Ѳƶֵܾõġȼ˽ѧڹȥֱDz˼ġģ棬ʱǶΪ̳˿֮ѧͳ˲Ψһڼ˲ţһãȴҲһֵƫΣգҪʹáڴУĹǸӶԪģ˼ŲȻλԡˣ˻ָ˲Ŷ˼ʵҪҪöࡣ˼ŵνͳһʷʱڶйлãףһȨ֮ơײõ˽Ϻõ䵱˲淢չҪʱ˼ŵĵͳױһظĿ̸Ϊᷢչ谭[l]

ǰڶԻڽĻҲвȫʱ߼֮ġ

۷棬Ҷ涯⣬ܵ˴ͳĻشӰ죬ĻеĿۿܸһ֧Եĵλ䲻ʲôȴţıչһԶġеʽĿԣĿʹӸ˵Ǵӻ򡢴Ԫӵͼ߼ӼӡΪһĸѧķչ仯ҪǺֶơ

һַչйͳĻûеġ

˵ϣĻʱкܴ𡣶ʱһ˵˹ϵDZȽϼ򵥵ġһֻҪرҪǣֻҪͱȻܹõıӡִڴ˵˼ȴӵöࡣǼȲԸţ̸ˣ˸ĴڣֲԸĴ˶Է˵Ĵûйϵ˵Ĵڡ˵żȻǡһõ顱ռԭ֮һԶִκڽ۸ΪӺ޵ĹϵȻǵǷ˱һڽ۶ҪΪӺһˣ

̸۵һ˹ϵܶ룬ռԭ˴һصϹϵϲ֤˱ضõҸֻĬĬشڲżȻΪ֪̽Ĵڼ˶֮пܳԽʵľޡ֮Ա֮ΪˡΪڱDzܱ֪̽ұıġٴܹʶᴩƷʼաˣƷǺѿ編֮ϵһΪͼɲοϲšƷ

˹ϵлһԼһ˹ϵģʽйͳĻǼٱἰġֹϵģʽУ֮һΪнĵߣԼԼӵ񶼲ܷ񶨵ߵʥԣԾߵȨȨҪԼĿ϶ܷá趨УԼͳԼ֤񶨵һʽȻѾ϶ԼʥԣʹԼȻԵȻɲ֣ͼԼǾͳ˷ԼȻDzܷԼģͲˣ˵Լ[li]

ֹȽϼ򵥵ȻԴӻڽĻҵԴڽѧϵԼ֪ġڴҪǿָǣǰĻԼʥԵӣֱӵһӰԴͷ²ǻڽ̣ǵϷΪ֧ԮʶĹԴִɹķĹʥԵԴȻϣ¾ԼŸΪƾá̵ĻͳͳԴͷǿݵԪǰ1700ġȷ䡷磺Ԫǰ23501850˱ķ䣨νUr-NammuLipit Ishtar[lii]

ڹ۷ֵȫ˼ʶҪ¼档

ֵᵽǰĹǰѾ̸ijЩҶڰĹע룬ճΪ׼԰Ĩƽ֮ķгأԴľ粢ʵռԽһ׵Ʒдԣ˹ܡȻһЩҲɲοйŴҲС߰ˡ˵ǰڴейʶ壬ҪӦĻУڽĻصӰ첻ɵ͹

ʱĴʿδڽѧ˵СĹʿҲδ뵽֮ѧ֮⣬һ硣

˵̬ϣʱкܴйͳȻδԹ˵Ĺػ⣬Ͼйͳδչһνѧۣûһ۽ĴڡϵľԵλˣǰҽ˵ĹػΪ䳬Խ˼յ㣬Ըɹϣ˼еԴȪӦǽִ˵˼˱ѧ˵ҲǵʿһϴIJ졣

ҵʱ졣йͳѧ˵ʵijЩ۵Ĺ˼Դڽ̵˱λչ˼ҵ硣йѧ˵ļֵǰۣڴ˲׸ڴҪǿǣйѧ˵ҲһЩľޡ˵йͳѧ˵һζǿ붯ֲһС顱ԣԡ顱ʲô˵ġ顱ġ顱޲⣬ûϸ˼档ǰڴĿдǻִʶ֮ϵһָһԭ̽ѰǸѧ˵Լ񻰴˵и־ŬơϿ̸ħʦ֡çתļǡߡơѪڡ˾ɽǽдԵƷҲӦࡣǶ˵ʱڵʿǿ̸ܶ۵֮ͬˡ顱ȵȣ˼ںȫͬġǰҵдһЩִĹʶ

һҪᵽ⡣ʱǣ϶ܾڽоԵֵͬҲ޷˵ľ塣ɷϵǣѾע⵽ʵ壬һͼʾıϵݣɲμѪյҹߡٱ߽ǰĵս񡷡ԶİʥʿƷдǺܴªܷdzģд߶еֽƵֶ꣬Ĺעʶͬʶֵע⡣ҲǴһб־仯̬

Ҫᵽһðɵ⡣ʱ۴ʿʿˣһ㶼ijЩDzɴ߶Խɵľܴ󣩡ڵǰУһȴԴΪĿ֣һдԵƷС֮ҡӰ澣֮·ʥİӰͱ𡷡֮衷񸸡ջ󡷡ûڲԭ֮ȣһսһ߶ȵĹʵĺϷڣҲǵǰһֵעص㡣

ȫʶҪ档

һɳ֮ΪӵṹŦʲôʿ봫ʿĴȻྶͥҲбһ֮ǶΪάϵȶҪŦǵҪڵµľݷ棩ⷽһȴάͽǵС˵УеĵʵƭĹάϵIJԶϵԼصȨıֶΡ

ڶһءͬʱһҪݣDZ㺡ΪʲôȻһdzڰڳݵش̸һ㣬һЩѧʶΪ񡢼ʶΪԶȴͼ̸νķа⡣Ϊͨγ֮Ĺϵdz̬ٸܹϸĵ±׼ˣϸյģͽй죬ôҪȥ飬Щֻܰѵ±׼ӹ׻滯ȻһֵģУӹסĶֱϵµ£ͻɱȵΪϵڹܵԼģоͻ಻ɿƵǷǵһϵά̹

ڽ̻̽֯Ϊʲô⵽ǿҵĹΪΪִʥŵ˼֯ɱػΪƷ˳Ҫָģ̻ԳΪһŪĶҲ̻ⲿءȻԴָɣЩ̻һʥŽȴȫ˷ĸ֯ԴΪЩνʥ׷аװ˵ĸеİ֮顣ʷ˼ʶȻʿDzܾ߱ġ

Ƕ˽ײǿսУʿʿ˶ΪһֵرעĽײ㡣һʱڣŷҵ˼ķչʱַչ廹ھǻδʶҵķչظı̬֯ʶ̬ǰĴҶһȴ˳ֵʶҶѷչҵйˡҪ塣Դ˼йġ谭áͬʱҲܾ˻ڽ̴ṹе壺ҵУڽƺûʲôעڵıҪҪһڽ𵽹ͨοãôκһڽ̻ⷢһʲôڽ̶ܹͬĹЧ

ڹҰȫʶʶұʱʶԷġʿ˷Իڽ̵һҪǻڽ̿вйĻеĸͳҶԻڽ̵Ҫͣʷ˺䷽档ijϣֹҰȫѷΪһµʷ˵ڴҵĹʶУνĻķͳѲһҪ˼ˡ

 

ѵı

 

ǻƪȽ400йԴڽĻı仯оȻdzġҲԿһЩҪԵıͨȽϣǿԷ֣й˵봫ͳĻȻвĬͨIJ֣ĵļֵ֣ѷشı䡣˵洴۷棬󲿷йѽһĿѧۣϣΪһԵԭʶϣй˵ȼ˵ģ塢ѳΪϵƶᷢչԭ

ۻصڽйĹϵǻ֣ᷢйĻ400ݽУȻش仯䷢չ仯߼ʼڽ̾ġ[liii]˵ǰĻЩȻǿҴͳۼIJ֣ʹĻϵеIJ֣йƺֻѡԵؽ塢йصݣԶЩڽĻн϶ݡ

ľ棬ͼ׷һ⣺йڽӦʲôʵҲһйڽα⣺˵ڽӦʹйĻйᡰһӣй˵鷢һȻĺӦϵ

ӴĻĽǶȽо¼Ҳڻڽ̱˼ҪرԹע⡣

ֵעĸλ⡣ָڽ̵˸йһ⡣ֱ죬ȻΪͻشšһ㣬ҪйĻڽ̾޷ͨ

ԭ˵Ǻبһйڽ֮̾һľΤʶй˵ĹϵͳDzһԭġ[liv]йǰԭƷ٣վڽͽǶȵķԡЩ˵ȱԭֱǽйֱԭǵµйԨ޴ڽ̹ҹȻ˼áµ𱸻һЩ˵ʵԶˡʹDz˼бҪôľйһ֡ԭĹȻǻԲȡĻνڽ̵ıԴܶжĻش

Үյ˶һؽõ͵⡣Үôͬʱ񣿰һй˵˼ǷdzһġйֵѧƷҮձʾƷֵ࣬ģǶΪ˵Үյij羴³Ѹ˵ɱˡӡҮյѪȡѪۡΪʲôӡҮͬʱעǡþȵϣ󲿷йҶֱӱȡһӶ̬ȡڽ˼ϣڱȡýϺõijɼͲܶһʵⱧӶ̬ȡҮյԣ޷ڽ̵ľۡʮּܵҫλһȵҪ

šзһӦ⡣йͽԴճҪиIJ졣ڽ̱Ƚǿľԡйĸ˼ѧ˵ȽǿСҪԡһΪʲôDzҪģҪǿʲôôijֵ¹ڸճΪУͿΪǴֵµġߡͳĻڽ̽ȴǿľҪԣûжġϵʹΪϵ¹淶ͬܵþȡͽĹ󣬻ڽšзжƺк컯ɵ˵ϺõؽšзĽŶһŻҲ뵽ҮվȶķΧڡ˵Ƿܻ嵭ڽص㣿йԮѧ˵ҪġΪйͳйǿġг塱Ĵͳ粻Ϊϸ¡˼׽ڽ˼ѧȫֻҪ̬ȣŻĶ˱ȲŻ˸׻Ķ衱֮⣬Dzʱ˵ġδš֮ķ⣬ȷйڽ̱һеѡ

Ƚ400ǰТǷǷѲйͳĻڽ֮̾Ϊش⣬һҲζڵǰڽ̱ТѲһҪ⡣ǡǡ෴˽100ġТƳ⽨̡˶й˽лصТΪĵλοһ˼仯Ҳǻڽ̱еһҪ˼⡣

йصĹ˼ǻڽѧҪԵ˼⡣ڽǿʵ޾ʹֻ࣬ľȶʵռԽйĹ˵ʵ̫ʹ࣬Ψ޳󷨣һԾʵʻռѡ˵ʵеʶ߶޷õ֤˵漣ڽ̹Ȼ漣£й񻰴˵Ҳ١Ϊʲô˵йĹDzܵģΨлڽ̵֮վڻڽ̵áʥ֮йǺ˵ԵģйĻڽ˼ʿӦվһֿ͹۱Ƚϵѧ˼ѧĸIJ졣

йĻڽоӦע⵽ǰĹĹ嵱ȻǻڽĴСҲע⵽ּ˹ֵı󣬴Աֳһ׷ĿǰôȰ̸Խ֤֮һ־󣬼򵥵ﳾ׷չޡֻһֱȽϼ򵥻Ĵʽ˼Ӧ˼ֹͬ徫˼Դ

йĻڽ̱ӦһҪ⣺ִУڽ֯װݵһĽɫִһĹ̷룻йûʲôȨĸʹִһйˣẒ̌ͺ̻֯ṹеıҪԡ統ǰıڱֵǻڽ֯һִȨıIJǵһע̭ʷۼֹĻӦڽ̾ͲճΪйһлɡ

 

 

                               ߵλйѧѧԺ

 

 



[i] л񹲺͹ԺŰ칫ңйڽ״Ƥ飬199710£

[ii] Ź­ZдۣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײлйĻڽ̵ijײ˶룬1989164ҳ

[iii] 񼡢йǡθ߼õ룬֣ʦѧ200169ҳ

[iv] ɲμתйĻڽ̵ijײ251ҳ

[v] ½۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ238ҳ240ҳ

[vi] ꡢʼ½ȶԴ˵ĻӦдԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ246ҳڽĩѧ1994249-250ҳ

    ʱҲ˼ͼֱֲͨIJֺҮ֮ĸ硣ҮջʿʿҶ߾ʹչĶԻԵġɽѧǡ˵ҶΪҪ۷ƣ಻šɲμڽĩѧ152-156ҳ

[vii] ܡ۽дԣܵĹ۵ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ264-265ҳۿɲμйŷڽ̺ѧʷƽ200165-66ҳ

[viii] ԴйۣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ82ҳ92ҳ

[ix] ܶԴ˵ĻӦдԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ88ҳ

[x] ռԴ˵ĻӦдԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ151ҳ

[xi] ݴܡͨݵ۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ39ҳ73ҳ225ҳ

    ģȻǻڽ̸ݡʥǡ1µ27-30ֹǰҲЩ˼ΪʥⲿֵĸĻԴȻӶǵǰ̬ΣԴɲμëڽ̬˼Ƚоɶ200730-32ҳ

[xii] йĻڽ̵ijײ176ҳ

Үջʿͼϳ׵ؽⷽ⡣񼸽ѧͳν 飩ͶԣġģҲŪøˡɲμڽĩѧ246-247ҳ

[xiii] ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ174ҳ

[xiv] ʿй˲۵ĿգɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ7075ҳܶԻڽ۵ķдԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ72176ҳ

[xv] ͨݵ۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ177-178ҳ

[xvi] ݴܡ紿۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ282-283ҳ

[xvii] 紿дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ284ҳ

[xviii] ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ79-80ҳ˵

[xix] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ268ҳлʵº⡢­Z紿ҲдԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ272-278ҳ

[xx] ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ273-274ҳ˵

[xxi] ºԴۣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ274ҳ

[xxii] ܡº۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ286-287ҳ

[xxiii] йĻڽ̵ijײ190ҳ

[xxiv] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ193ҳ

[xxv] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ223ҳܹТ䡶١һġºⷽļҲдԣɲοйŷڽ̺ѧʷ130-131ҳ

[xxvi] ɲοлڡйĻڽ̵ijײ190ҳ˵

[xxvii] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ180ҳ

[xxviii] й˸Ļͳdzڽ̵⡣ʹһЩϵĻͽҲˣͼԿӵġ˶ţ֪Ҳͻڽ̵ۣ±Զġɱࡵ򡷣ҮջҪϺϺ2006120-123ҳ

[xxix] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ180ҳ

[xxx] йĻڽ̵ijײ240ҳ˵

[xxxi] ܡºȵдԣɲμڽĩѧ239-241ҳ

[xxxii] ܡµ۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ204ҳ

[xxxiii] ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ198-199ҳ˵

[xxxiv] ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ287ҳ˵

[xxxv] ס硢筵ĿдԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ127-129ҳ

[xxxvi] ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ187ҳ˵

[xxxvii] ݵ۽дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ150ҳ

[xxxviii] Ͼ̰ܹԱⷽ1620ġϹ빡ɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ61ҳ

[xxxix] ܲתԡйĻڽ̵ijײ123ҳ

[xl] aΡԪܡꡢɡл͢ʦ˶ⷽɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ133-142ҳ

[xli] ̻ʿƺڽΪšŪЩڽͽСȴͬ߼ڽijijȻһ񸸵ףϴȬȵȣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ99-117ҳ˸[ɲο÷ǫɳԴıԽࡶоۼ3ڽĻ2006棻֤ҮջʿҪ59ҳ˹ҮջʿʷƼ룬йѧ199060-61ҳ]Ƶ˵ڷǻʿȻ֮ԣܵ˶ԴбȽУɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ118-119ҳ  

[xlii] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ229ҳ

[xliii] ⷽ⣬ǹƶȺɲοйĻڽ̵ijײ227-229ҳ

[xliv] Ҫ˵ⷽìܼ峯Ժ󣬿ɲοйĻڽ̵ijײ229-230ҳ

[xlv] aɲοйĻڽ̵ijײ63ҳڿȫǡģѧ˵Ӳѧ˵֮¡ܳһʱܹй˽ܵһҪԭȴΪиӵĴִ֪ʶĹܡֱڣй˶Իڽ̵Ȼˡ˵밮ִƼһȼ۵⡣Ƕ˵ڽйҲȻͰ˷йͳṹƶȵĹܡеa˵ЩԤԵζˡ

[xlvi] ꡢԴȵдԣɲοйĻڽ̵ijײ188ҳ210-211ҳ

[xlvii] ꡢ½ʱ˵дԣɲμйĻڽ̵ijײ150-151ҳڽĩѧ231-232ҳ

[xlviii] תԡйĻڽ̵ijײ56ҳ

[xlix] ɲοС˵

ᵽĴѧƷԵǰйԭѧվѧwww.qidian.comоڸվмС˵ƣҵƷУ鱾۵⡣

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    Ĺ۵ǽţ˴󲿷ִ˶ڴͳйṹ֯ʽ

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[lii] ɲο·ɵĸķɣ򣩡ʷ۵㡷̩άʱ𡷣룬Ϻѧֳ1996

    Դ˵Ҫ˵ΪһЩоǿ߹ڽĻӰ졣ڽĻִӰȻΪҪִϾҲľԴȪִǶĻ໥õĽᾧ主ζǣйҶЩĽܣƲеĻڽں۵Լ߸˵ĿȻ̸Լʥԣڴ£֡ԼʥԡʶDZʥԡȡˡ

[liii] ϵ˹ԣҪйڽ̣Dzܵ¡Ϊйġڽ̡ɡסǶһ𡱣ǣһȫ˻ڽ̲ܵǶ뵽ϵУɲμϵ˹۷ľ񡷣룬ӡ1959374-376ҳ۶Ҳ຺ѧҡĻʷѧ߽ˡ

ڴҪȴǣϵ˹˵ȶϵͳڽȻһЩʶֵ˼ݣͳйڽ̡ɡסǡԽԽʧȥй˵Ŀˡ˵ӦǻڽйʱڣȴԿʹȴʶ̬ƷأйԻڽ̾ıܾܳȻǷdzǿҵġˣϵ˹νйͳijȶṹйĻڽ̵ĹϵҲδؾͰסʵʡ

[liv] ɲμΤƷ֡룬֣ʦѧ2004221ҳ225-226ҳ311-312ҳȴ