ʱڻҵо

Ļо

ʩƣ

ʱڻҵо1582-1911

 

 

   Abstract: This article aims to offer a preliminary study of Catholic social relief activities in China during late Ming and late Qing dynasties. The Jesuits and other Roman Catholic societies who arrived in China in the late sixteenth century introduce a new age of Chinese Catholic charities. Urged by a sense of mission and charityCatholic Church began to be engaged in the activities of social relief for contemporary society.  However, it was after the Opium Wars that the Catholic Church was recognized as an important force for Chinese social relief. The charitable activities operated by Catholic Church were in a wide range of areas, not only opening asylums and orphanages for abandoned babies and Children, homes for the elderly, and other charitable institutions, but also setting up medical institutions such as hospitals, clinics, leprosy hospitals for treatment of diseases. In addition, the Catholic Church also actively participated in the famine relief as well as refugee relief work. Hence, the Catholic Church had already become an important contribution to modern Chinas charities.

 

          һ  ǰ

 

            ֻҪ˳һССʩᣬͿȡһЩ˳Ϊͽһׯڽ̵ӡɪ[1]

 

ڽ̵һṦԡڽ̵ṦǶģھһҪĹܡָڽ̶ijЩʧֲֲʵ档ǰҪͨϵﵽοȡķĸʩij̶ֳϴﵽʧĿģڽĴҵһֵ͵ķӳ

ʷϵҪڽһ㶼ȽӲҵճиȺ־ʱڻͶȼû𡢵ڴͳйIJϡƶ⼢ҽơڣȹҵ[2]̵ͬ󣬴ƻҲ̻һҪԼԴһҪֶΡ̴У̻ҵϰҪɫѵǼʱԮ֣벻ֵðİʹ֮١ʵϣŷ̻õľ׺̶ܴڴҵ

 

Ϊǣ׵ǮǾ֡Ժȵģ˵ģЩɥʧ˫׺ûԼŶҪЩֻŵˣЩѵˣһЩڿµġڵϵĻ߱ڼˣһеԼǶϵ۽̻ҳϣ̻ͻչ[3]

 

̴ƹ£ʿͽھȼƶ¶ߵIJʹȷ๤

֮´й̵ĴƹҲ֮롣̻Ͷڻҵʱݽõչرʱڣ̴̹ģ̴̻ĸƣ̻Ϊйҵеһ֧ҪƻҲϵͳӤá¶ԺԺȴ׻ҴҽԺԺҽμҽƻ⣬̻ỹͶֻġĹСӶγһľϵΪйҵҪ䡣ȻҪȽʶ̻ڽйеĽɫ˽һ׶̻ڻĴƻһɻȱҪǰᡣȻźǣΪֹѧйؽ̻ڻƻоȻʮޡ[4]мڴˣļռʷϣʮ꣨1582ͳ꣨1911̻ڻҵרŵ̽֡

 

          ĩǰڻҵ

 

ҶԺ̴ʿ׷ŷֳŵĽŲҽйᣨMichel Ruggieri(Matteo Ricci)Ϊ׵ҮջᴫʿȡӦйĻIJԣйվ˽Ÿ˺޻Ҳ̽йڸչĴ̻ɴʹĩйĴﵽһ߳ʱڡ[5]

ʱڵĴʿ뻪֮עͨȼײȺʮ꣨1584ոսйõҮջʿڹ㶫ʩϴһλڽͽһΪƶӵͨգ

 

һ̵ͲİաϵȻѡ˵΢СĶܾ޴Ķ˺˲֢֮ҽΪ޾ȣļ֧Ԯпذ׵⣬ڴ·ϡ˵£ͳȥҵǸˣ˵弲ϣа취չ꣬õѺͼ֡ǰؼйһɾСéݣķӣտѻ̵Ļ̸˳׼֮Ϊ۹еһϴˡ[6]

 

Ȼܵŷ̷ĴƹӰ죬Щĩйĵһ̴ʿȻȻ뻪֮ͼ̳˱ŷһѾȼù¿Ⱥ嵱ЧֶΡʵϣҲΪ˺ڻ̻ձֵһֻ̲ԡʹҮջʶйĻײ㽻չ̾棬Ӷȷ֪ʶ̲ԣھĴ̹ҲȻûзֽȼԴ̵ķʽ뻪̶һ뷽øв޻ᣬ򱾻ᴴ֮ȷײ㴫ʣǰײΪҪ̶󣬻ҵˣĩǰ̻ڻչһЩƻҪӤμȼ档

 

һӤ

 

Ӥʱйдڵһ⡣ʵߣŮĹʢУƶͥľø˻ȶԭ򣬳һЩͥŮӤʱͽ⣬ټͥȡ˽Ӥ·ߡȹʱڵĵط־УйظӤĶϰرȱȽǡɽٺأŮ֮ϰؽȻʱߣĪΪ[7]ᡢ뻪Ҳע⵽йڵӤӤªϰйһָΪصijЩʡŮӤԭ˵ǵĸĸǡʱ˲dzƶԺϺӶòѺʶ׺ݵū˵Ϊ˺òġתֻأҰоͿܱòˡΪ˵ϻתƵһ˵ϣǾΪֺ˵ı£ΪǰѺɱǶԺ˼¡[8]ش̵̴ʿǣһ治̶ԷΧӤ֮һΪӤʩϴԴչӤĹⷽ͵Ӻܶ࣬1569̻꣬Ѿڰ˴´ҵĻʴãõһҪƻϵŶ[9]̩Ԫ꣨1620ҮջʿʷΩ꣨Pierre Van SpiereϾʱΩߣĪһ¡˻ƶ࣬ţԭ򣬲Ӥߣ֮ڵΩûڡ[10]ͬ꣨1634ɽݼĴ󷢣ɽͽ֮ƵҮջʿһ־Alphonse VagnoniѲݾ񡱣ӤδõˣʣȻϴաƼڣ֮ŮʩŽ̹ߣΪʥĸලлʿʮˣһ־֮꣬䷿ʩƶʩʳʳ̡֮֮ʰ򱰹ˡŻӤ֮[11]ͬҲ󼢻ģҮջʿŵ(Emmanuel Gomez)ڸõش̣¶ڣο֮֮ȾƵ[12]ĩһᴫʿ(Juan Bautista de Morales)ʱҲ跨ӤصͽڿӤʱ뾡֪ͨԱܼʱʩϴ[13]϶̻ĩʱڴӤĵӡ

Ժ󣬴ʿӤĻδֹҮջʿʥ(Jean-François Foucquet)һ̸ӤϰԼʿΪŬڱÿ걻ĺӵĿdz޴󣬼ֱʹšǼÿ춼ҪΪһЩĺʩϴܹõΪɿijɹ֮һΪ˹ڽ̺п;仯̫˲ܱǶܵĶҳϡ෴ĺϴ󲻾ñȻãϣDZȻΪЩҸ[14]ͬҮջʿ(François Noël) ʮ꣨1703дһݱҲطӳƵںӣʩϴö࣬ЩÿϱͷĺӡӤΪйһĹܹԵң˾ȡڱ˿ڶ࣬ЩΪ޷ӵ޼ɵӶڴϺ͹㳡ϣʹһЩӱҵȥһЩӱҰɣҪĵһ¾ÿɴԱиΪ·ġŵĺʩϴÿĺӴǴԱʩϴԼ3000ˡжʮԱרŴһôֻкٵĺӵòǵĹػ1694꣬Ϊ3400ʩϴ16952639ˣ16963663ˣһ[15]ҮջʿͶDominique ParreninһҲᵽڴʿڱӤĻ139˼829ǽϴЩӶڽͷ̻ǻڸŸΪ3000ʩϴΪ[16]ڱ֮УʿҲͬעӤҮջʿò(Maurice de Baudory)ڿʮ꣨1719Ӻ꣨1727ڹݴ̣ճʱעشӽֿڵӤ֮ҵΪӤϴ׸ѰӤ֮ʰ֮Ӥĸ֮Ȼ֮ڽҵÿӤϴԼˣʥºز䡣д߼Dzһ˵ѵ֮곤ʱ֮Ժиڿɿ֮Ϊ֮λá[17] ʮһ꣨1722Үջʿ»J.B.Charles Jacquesһⷢŷ޵ԺУ̸ͬᴫʿҮǣPhilippe CazierڹݵطӤλʿﴴһּķҿ˾ٵܼУǾ丸ĸӤӤڽϼʱѱҧˣҵݺͼ¡ЩĺʩϴԤþȵˡʿԵƶʿ´µͬϼƾ١йҲջΪӤϰСֻҪǮ֧ڽߣÿһҪִ߽ΪյĺʩϴĹʣջͻǷʢġ˿϶ظңÿڱҪǧ[18]Ӻ꣨1726̻ڰһʱԵĻᣬ30Ѹ͹ŮʹܹõáǬ¡ʮ꣨1782ڻð»ĴʽһŮԺʥԺ˲ϵĹŮ[19]

ݡϾȴ˿ڶ࣬ӤҲرԡʡݣӤҲձڳ֮䡣Щط̵ĴʿҲȡƵӤʩʱڴʿӤͨɽ̻֧΢ķʽһЩڽߣרŵѲӡ쿴ӤЩȻʩϴ䱧ء⣬ʱҲֱӽӤ͵áӤһڸճþͱʱѾһϢܹӤ࣬ڽϴȥЩܹӤ̻δأ

п֪˽һӤ͵طٸӤ⣬Ϊ˱ϴӤķʿͨõǽӤ͸ͽͥ磬Үջʿξ٣Antoine Gaubilڱʱ̸ʿӤַʽܹϴĺ˻ָ˽Ǿ֪ͨҪ佻ӵķǻͽǽڻͽҪµķãȴDZزٵġ˾ٿȷЩӻȣҵҲ˼ɵؽˡǸӤô࣬ǵıҪȴܰȥǽΪ45ĺʩϴʥǾȥˡʮΪ30ʩϴ[20]֮⣬ǰڴʿƻйӤûܸЧؾЩӴıӤҮջʿɪ(Joseph Marie de Prmare)һо̸ڶֱҪġڽ̴ƶ̷չĻУҺͲٴʿرעһ֣ڵ۹ʡʡļƶԺԱʹҲҪԶ롣⽫һرϷ̫̫֮ĵҵҪǽһƻΪЩƶԺҪŮһͥĸĸĺӹʱױĸǵȶк٣ΪΪŮѴ򷢡ʳˣǽڽ׼ǵһ䣬ͬʱʺʺԱĵؼաʮ꣬ǾڷһǰijλϲʹǶϲżߵ˵ŷ̵̫̫ǽ޵Ժ͹ӹɣ˵һŵİɸרԱɵҲŷ޵Ժ[21]

   ˴ʿ⣬ʱڵһЩ̽ͽҲչӤĻ͵ϵŮͽ̫ˣԸݸ̨׼һӤӤáӤ֪ӤϡȽ˸ǸϴֹĸڲزIJ¶٣̫˱˽ʹᡣֹ÷صһʦףʥԻʥϴӤڣ[22]

 

μ

 

Ӥ⣬ĩǰ̻һҵǾμߡڴͳйᣬֱӹϵǵ档ײȺһ޷õӦеľֻԴС⣬ģȾʱ࣬ҲԸҪľΣ˳Ϊһص⡣ʱڴʿڴ̹УЩβȺȡʩҽҩͼᲡߵʹ࣬Щն񼲲˵ػڴģ߷ڼ䣬̴ʿͽҲȺⷽӲ١ĩʱڣ̻ڰŴһƶҽԺԺŮһǽϵĻߣԱȾĻͽͽҲˡDZսԺõϣܵĻҽԺҽҽΡͽڡСáõοҽԺŮ˶գӵ40λΪҽԺֵܻίԱδԥȡһ·𡢾ȼýԼϷǮķ䣬ڻ㱨[23]ʮһ꣨1672øᴫʿԾBlasius GarcaڰҲһҩԼҽڵҽβ˲ٲˣЩƶˡǰٹ˼пĻᣬΪЩIJȡʩᡣ1678꣬øڹݳطؽúԾİҩ֮ǨƵ齨һҽ⣬ԾȷøᴫʿڽһﲿרŸӴǰҽĸڣΪṩѵҽƷ[24]Ӻ䣬Үջʿ޻ңJean-Joseph da Costaڱпһնҩ񡣳ۡμȻԸΪμƶ֮ߣԡҩԸ߼ңʱΪ֮աǰòʩϢʩҩҾѣʹ˴ҵꡡ[25]ͬǬ䣬Үջʿ̩(Etienne Rousset)ι͢ҽʦҲҽβˣβ߲̳֮Ϊƴ򡣽˽ҽÿǰӯš̩һһΪ֮ʩҩ[26]Ǭ¡Үջʿ(Antoine Gomes)ڱ̣ϰִҽھȼƶ޸֮ˡ[27]

    財һֶԵĴȾһȾϣΪݣҲҽӽ̻Ѿ財ΪԻµļ̳У̴Ȱı֡ĩǰڣڻ̴ʿ財һ̶ȵľΡ磬ʮ꣨1597̻ڰһԺΪ財ˡʮ꣨1834ԺεIJ69[28]ʮ̶һҲ˶ദר財˵財Ժûᴫʿ񷶵һЩҪ財˽ӵøרŽ췿ݣչǡ[29]һЩʿΪչ˲ܵȾʧȥ翵ʮһ꣨1722ҮջʿPhilippe CazierڹݴʱΪ뵱財Ժο߶ܸȾ[30]

ģȾʱԵĺ´ʿͽĩǰҲͶ뵽ߵСʮ꣨1605һδȾִﱱ̲õҮջʿͽһߡдҮջ᳤ܻһ˴˴δжأ꣬һֲһǵĽչʾµĻᡣǽ߾ȫЩȾ˲ˣǵıҲdzɫŬչ˲ˣһʮ꣬ÿ춥ߵǻԺĵطȥһλزĽѡڴҵľչ£ѾȬˡ[31]ʮͳҮջʿ(François-Xavier dEntrecolles)ڽʱҲ˵ͽ߷ڼβߵ¼[]֮ƹˡij껼ߣȾڣ߼Բҽ֮֮ٲ֮ʡӲߣηȾȻ˵ӣһȾߡ[32] ⣬ʮ꣨1701ʮ꣨1706䣬Үջʿ¡ʢGuillaume Melonڽ̡طߣ¡ʢȾĻߣܵȾ[¡ʢ]ࡣһ̫ذѶУʢľ౻Ⱦ17066⡣[33]

 

 

ĩǰڵ̻Ҳս뼢ʱڲ磬ʮ꣨1704ɽˮӾʦ۲ǧҮջʿأJoseph SuarezͶڱ賧ʩࡣءͶԾʩʱ룬ʳϸˡʩෲ£ÿǧˣȻ࣬ڼĪ̾[34]ݽ̻׼أʱҪĻͽΪṩ˵ķʰ;ߣά򣬶Ҷÿ˶Ҫο䡣ɴ˲ǵ[35]ͬӻв٣Ǭ¡ʮ꣨1781ϼıڼ䣬ҮջʿҦڳ֣񣬡ɢʩޡ[36]֮⣬ʿճҲʰ֮ĽиָļƶӺǬҮջʿͣIgnace Köglerְ࣬ٺȼƶ[37]

ҵȻҪһľԴĩǰ̻ڴҵľԴȽϸӣҪŷľٸʹԼطľ׵ȼ֡ĩǰڣ̻ڻ´ƻľѣܴһŷľ磬ʱӤIJٷãŷϽͽľڴʿУǿԿżдŷһЩˣرһЩŮھ֧ı棬о̸ƿڹ˾ȼӤ͵17201019ҮջʿԱһţޡһλӢ̫̫عһڽߣǵҪְÿѰұ·ߵĴӤΪ֮ʩϴЩӤĸƶһͱ̡[38]ĩǰڣһִʿڷ͢ʱýΪźʹͣЩٸʹ͵һҲ֧´ҵĿ⣬ƿеһԵطͽľס磬Үջʿڿʮ꣨1703һݹй̻״ıУ̸طͽճֽ֧̻Ὺչҵ̻𵽵Ҫãܴ󲿷ֵĻͽǹũڼϵͽѧϰ׳Щȥ˺ͼƶˣȥӡˢڹͽ͸лͽġ޴ڽ鼮[39]ʮ꣨1715ҮջʿһдڽݵҲ͸¶ƵϢֵʥ䣬ص塰Ѿ˵Ǯ׼һֶӡȰǣ˫ɹܡӡġȵǮָˣ⽫ǶƶҮյĸüհˣ˶˸л[40]Ͽɼĩǰ̻ڴҵľԴDZȽ϶ġ

֮ڴ̻ƣʱ̻Ĵƻڿ׶Ρ޻ᴫʿչĴƻϻͣڹɢ״̬̻ܵľޣ޷нϴģĴƻֻܳ䵱˽֮ȼһ޶ȵIJ䡣ֱԺڻĴҵŽ뵽һ½׶Ρ

 

             ڻҵķչϵͳ

 

ѻƬսԺ𽥿Ž̡ǿв£̻ǰδеĴ̱رǵʮ꣨1844ʹأThodose-Marie de LagrenܶղӢǩзԼڶʮжڻ¹涨˰յڶڵطסѣ޷ݼջнݽСһԽáҽԺܼԺѧصظطٻͬ¹鶨˾ס˽֮ءй˽áصشٻطϾس͡[41]̷ʮ꣨1860Ӣв£ֱ뷨ǩзԼ̴ʿ˽ڸԼйش̹涨ˡηʿڸʡأԱ㡱־䣬ӶΪ̻չڵṩԼ1860ԼΪйĴʿ¼ԪɵñյйڵأԽáƻ[42]зԼзԼй̻ڻ̵涨̻йӤãҽԺȼԺȸҵ֯񡣿˵ڻҵǰ˸ķչҪ¼棺

 

һ  

 

ʱڣӤ¹Ȼ̻ڻΪҪĴҵ֮һһʱڣ̻ӤĻ֮ǰģ󡣸ӤΪʮձ飬罭ϳԼƶǮĺӡСϴǾͳΪüͥһԱҲ֪һСȥϴDZκһ¸ʹ񸸸еοҲ϶õһʥơһһʥϵĽڲϷչšǰѺӴ·ĺӵĶϣеĻΪ˾ȼչֽҼʱн⸸ĸ԰Ѻġ[43]ڳ̻ἫصͽЩӤϴĺͯǸڳһ׮رƫҵĹˡŮȻֻһһģҲϧ΢нԼЩǮӤҺˣøǸ󡣡[44]ȱʽ𣬵ʱ̻ỹڳһŶԺ̻ὫЩӽ˴һЩͯͰڽѼЩ˼ҴǺѻһŮǸ󲿷ַҲdzеʥӤƻľֻӤرѵЩƵŮЩĶͯͱҵĺӶͬȴܵ[45]ִһݡӤüǡΪ¶˲ʱϺһӤõĴ

 

ӤǨһ㣬ʱ1864꼴ͬ괺Үջ᳤񸸶򻦳Сҵ䵱һ˹ʱչ¶࣬¼δ㣬ʾ⽫ӤԳڰʮһ⳯Լٲ¥һԼ£ʱǰ¥ΩһӤк֮ߣҾӴˣСںӶ֮ƽʮݾӡ¥ߣɻѧ[46]

 

ĿɼʱϺ̻ӤŶܶࡣֻ붯ҷϾӤ󣬴ʱ̻ҲʮעӤ磬ʮšʮ꣨1849-1850䣬ϵ֣ںܶ࣬ȱʳͥȶӣϺ̻ЩӤʱפϺᣨde Montigny1851612רԷ̣F.Xavier Marescaý̻ƾ٣ϤȥһУһຢӱ˵ĸĸֻ֮Ϥһǧٶͯ¹ػ£ĻԽ[47]⣬ݵطҮջʿʽJoseph Seckinger˴̣ءӤIJر࡭1866ʥհ񿪰һӤãȻ˳ǧӤ[48]ӳǽϵʵϣʱ̻йؽӤá¶ԺڽУһЩ׼ص̻ᴴӤü¶Ժ

 

ص

ע

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1861

1885걱ʰդһʥӤٶԺ1893ִﱱʥĸӹй¶Ժ

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1836

18462231877ڸ߼ӪϺǵ˺ؾӤԺ

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1863

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1882

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1907

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1901

й¶30ˡ

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1858

¶ʱﵽ500-600ˡ

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1886

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1874

1887رա

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ɹŶʮ

1886

1907꣬Ӥ࣬ԺɣӤԺ跿ʮ䣬ͬʱ400ˡ

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1864

1868-1869չ196λӤ1870ʱŮͯ150ڡ

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1864

1868-1869179λ¶

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ɽʮׯ

ĩ

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1882

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1899

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1911

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1886

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1853

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1864

1847ɽ Ǩֲ̼塣1851ٶ60ˡ1864Ǩɽ塣

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1869

1913¶Լ550ˡ

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1859

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1844

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1855

 

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1866

ӤɷҮջʿʽ񴴰죬һλһʥĸԺŮ

Ӥ

1866

 

ʴù¶Ժ

1868

 

¶Ժ

㽭լ

1882

 

¶Ժ

1876

 

ʥӤԺ

Ĵɶƽ

1903

Ӥ¿޸ߡ

Ӥ

Ĵɶ

1908

 

ʥӤ

1870ǰ

1870̰б١

Ӥ

Ϻƺ

1860

ںϴĵһӤá 1869Ѽҳ塢СӤӤ4-5Ӥü1900̰б٣ؽ

Ӥ

1896

 

ɳӤ

ϳɳ

1906

1910곤ɳ׷糱ڼ䱻١1916ؽ

Ӥ

˲

1892ǰ

ʥĸڡ1892˲̰ʱ׺ʮĿһĿһϵԭ򲡳ϵ丸ĸԸ

¶Ժ

1901

 

Ӥ

ϲ

1862

ʿްϲøӤŮӤʮڣݴŮӤʮڣסʡ⣬˽á

Ӥ

1862

ʿް

Ӥ

Ϫڱط

1865

ŮӤʮڡ

βʴù¶Ժ

1889

 

βӪʴù¶Ժ

1889

 

ʴ

ݺ

1845

̶һᴴ졣

ʴ

ݸβ÷

1893

̶һᴴ졣

۹¶Ժ

̨

1868

̶һᴴ죬̨ϣ60λ¶ջٶǨۡ1903ɶһᴫŮӹܡ

ʴãȹ¶Ժ

̨

1875

̶һᴴ죬19Ӥ

Ӥ

㶫خ

1889ǰ

̻ᴴ졣

Ӥ

1848

Ϊ̻ĵһӤãɷʥ»Ů裬ʱ1360Ӥ

Ӥ

1873ǰ

ŵŮ1873-1889䣬ݵӤﵽһǧˡ

޵¶Ժ

޵

1877

Ϲ¶ࡣ

ù¶Ժ

1903

ϵŶӤ

 

 

Щ̻Ӥú͹¶ԺУڶĺӡϺɽ¶Ժͬ꣨1867ԺŶﵽ342133ֱڸ80ũ20԰ա109Ϊ̫СܲμͶСѧ[49]ͬͬξ꣨1870 һʴУҲŮͯ150[50]ʮһ꣨1905ɹŽӤôﵽ19֮࣬ŮӤ2466УɹŽ6ӤãŮӤ390ɹŽӤ9ŮӤ1620ɹŽӤ4ŮӤ456[51]֮ʱ̻ڻӤԶԶĩǰڣӤʮӴڡлһм̻ᡰйԼһʮ¶ԺŮռһǧӡ[52]ǣǴҲԿʱڵ

Ӥ¶Ӥü¶Ժ⣬ʱ̻ỹйؿ˲پ¹˵ĻЩƲһеijΪԺеijΪԺеijΪͤʡȵƻΪٵĹ¹ˡӱ̻ᴴ˲ϻӱӽ߼ӪԺһλŮͽŮʮ꣨1908죬ĸŮ˾ԺڷԺй¹50[53]̷꣨1858ӱڶ̶ôʴãó˿ǰӤԺ֮⣬ҲԺмԺȸҪ޿Ĺ¹ԼʧȥIJмˡ[54]Ϻطͬ꣨1867ڸԣͽľ£Үջʿ£Antoine FemianiϺøһݣĽһãר޿Ĺ¹ˡͽÿ¾άǵͬʮ꣨1873ͬʮ꣨1874䣬ʮͷʮ̫Ƿͽ[55]ʮ꣨1906ϻŮڶҶô˰Ժ27¹ˡǨ39ַһŮ250ˡðԺά300ң[56]ĩϺϻ֮һϵʮһ꣨1905ڱũԿͤһ10ˡʿ̵ڻƺٲ޽һͤΪԺʱݹ¹˳60ˡ[57]лһĩڻϻйƣʮʡǷʮԺƽÿԺʮˡ[58]ֱʱ̻ϻ˽ϴķչ

 

   ҽƷ

 

зԼԼ½ǩ̻֮ǿвȣ𲽴ڻؽá˰ֽ̻ḽɡҽƻһֱŷ̻дҪֶΡȻѾ׼ڻҽƻڻ̻ȻŹûᣬˣԺ̸޻½й˽ССҽԺΪṩҽƷ񣬽ϵIJͬʱҲйĴ

ޣ޷֪ʱڻ忪˶ҽƻӦ١ʩȽȫҽԺӦʮϣ꡶лһѾָΪй˿̻ҽԺԼʮʮҲܸࡣ[59]Сʩҩ޿ɼ㡣ͳƣ1934ȫ̻ᴴʩҽ744[60]ЩʩҽУʱӦ˵һʱڣһЩҪ̴רŵĹҽԺϺط̷꣨1853СʱҮջᴫʿڶҶɵطһҽԺΪƶİṩʩҽҩȸҽƷҽԺйʯʿJules SaguezΪƶʹ˲ٹλ๫κߣdzϿҡͰ׵ġĽӴˣϸҵԸοԼǵʹࡣ[61]̷꣨1855ʱҽԺεסԺ˴ﵽʮˣÿϰٸǰҩƵ۹ȣʯʿһ˺ȥ[62]ͬ꣨1864ԭҮջʿ˰¶(Auguste Bernard)ϺʩʼڿţйӶλйҽʦЭơ[63]ͬξ꣨1870ͬʮ꣨1871䣬ҮջϺø޽һҽԺרžЩϺıȾ˸ջңಡˡ⣬ҮջỹʿĹʥĹø޽һרؤҽԺ[64]ʮ꣨1908̻Ϻ˹ҽԺƶಡˡ[65]ӱͬ꣨1864ʱʰ޽һҽԺһΪṩҽƷ[66]ʮ꣨1899̻ڳӴþΪһһģҽԺӽҽԺҽԺҽԱʰŮɽҽԺﲡ⣬Ϊ̻ѧУѧӤõŶҽԱҲΪصĻθּ[67]ͬ꣨1867DzʹᴫʿںӱϹ򷿣һʥӤ[68]ͬʮ꣨1904̻ںӱ̨˳½ҽԺֳʴҽԺԺֻһ䷿ݵļªСﲿΪؾṩ˱ҽƷ[69]ɽطʮһ꣨1905ʥԻൺһרյҽԺʮ꣨1906ʥԻݸֿһС͵ҽԺ[70]³Ͻ1942꣬ʥԻͿ15ҽԺҽ˻и༲Ļ2193ˡҽʮ֮࣬1930ҽ˶ʮǧ߰һˡ[71]طʮ꣨1899ǷøŮԭط޽õͬʱҲһõҽԺ[72]еطʮ꣨1886̻Ҳڳ޽һҽԺԷڣ[73]ճݵطʮ꣨1908̻ʯ̨ؿʩҩƶʩҽҩ[74]ߺطԹʮ꣨1887ڵغ׶ɽסԺŮУ󣬼ûŮһŮУһ濪չʩ﹤ûŮǴѧһҽ֪ʶ˿һߴ̣һβˡ󣬵ؽʽһС͵IJԺдλ25ţרδȾߡ[75]ϳɳطʮ꣨1906λǷøŮŮﴫ̡ȴΪҩʩͳ꣨1911ڳɳҾڿһСչΪҪһҽԺ[76]̷꣨1854Խİʱ̻ڹڸ100йģϴһӰĴﵽ8[77]ʱڣĴҲ10ҽԺ277ʩҩУ1ҽԺ464ҽԺ136Ͻ5ҽԺ95[78]ͬʮһ꣨1872ǰ̰̻ⷽĴؿһҩ[79](1876)ǰ츮ҽݡ޲Ժʩҩ[80]ʮһ꣨1895ǰĴϿҲСҽһʩҽ˾쳣פڣһ䵱ҽʿ[81]ʮһ꣨1905̻Ĵ𸮽ҽԺ1935꣬ݸԺͳƣʮУԺһǧһˣʱһʮǧ߰ʮߺšԢе֮ˣһٰʮˡԺ𿴻ΪøŮᡣ[82]⣬Žط꣨1882ʰŮʱܿͿһСҽԺŮҲΪ˶˵ؾĺӶظıǶ̻Ŀ[83]

ڸؿΪΪؾṩҽƷܵӭͬ䷨Үջʿ˰¶򽭺ؿչҽƴ̣Ⱥͬ꣨18673¼򽭺شҽдĸ׵һУǿԿ򽭵ҽƻdzɹģѾŸˣҽಡˣÿкü󳬹ǵľʱɡԺ߰ˣǻΣӤϴ[84]ͬݵҽƻҲȡ˳ɹͬ꣨1867317գ˰¶ݿʩܵ˵ؾһӭһᵽЩIJ˵ȴʩţʱҪ·ϵȺСʱ֮áһȺIJ˷ӵ룬´ʿDzòװι̵ľդά򡣡һ죬Ƿȯûʱ䣬ֻಡ˿յˡ[85]ʰŮ򿪰һͬ꣨1868ͬΰ꣨1869䣬ҽι48000˴εIJˡ[86]Щ̻ῪڣΪṩҽƷͬʱȻҲƶ̵Ĵǰ˰¶ʿ˵ʩ˵Ĺ黯ѵõο˵ijɼȻҪȥϺϾ뿪˼£ҵѾŰʮӸϴ[87]

ʱڣ̻һЩΣԴĴȾҲרŵľλ磬ΪЩ¿財ߣڸ財Ժ軼߸ֿܵҽΡһƪܽͬʮһ꣨1872ʮһ꣨1922ʮй״У̸й財ֲ財ԺĽʱ˵ҹ֮˻Ķ࣬Ժ֮ʡ粡ߣϡݡϾݡݡšݡϵȴζߣΪʢϺݡ򽭡ݡƽͷݡԡ˼éڳ塢Ž졢ߺڡ˲¡üɽȴ˲ߣ籱̨졢ɶɳȴأδñ棬ܶϡǾ޴֢Ҳɼ粡֮򣬲Ϊ㣬Ϊ粡ı֮νȱ㶫ݸͻ֮ԺݣԺһ֮Тأ׶ػ֮Ժ㶫֮㽭֮ݣ֮ݡȴ̻£Ч裬Ϥɽ̻ᵣΣҹᣬԹ۵λδܷЧһ֮ͬԺ˲ΪıҸش˴ı֮ʤ̾գ[88]Ŀ֪й財Ĺ㣬߲٣˽財Ժλߵģǹٸ֯ǡϤɽ̻ᵣΡ̾һ֧Ҫ͵ʮһ꣨1905ڹ̵ķܻʿʼɢӿһʮ財߽ơ˺ֳィԪ꣨1912ɡ[89]ɽط̻Ҳݺൺ財ԺֱʥἰøḺ[90]

ڰ˺ߡҵдȾʱڣ̻Ҳ顣ͬԪ( 1862) ģУÿԼ400ɥDzʹᷨJoseph Martial Moulyİ£λʰŮڵؿ˷ŲҩơԾƺͽȣԴδ˵ҩƷһЧ[91]ĩ꽭ϴˮڼ䣬˴ģдȾ̻ҲͶ뵽ߣ˵ĻһЩ̴ʿȾϺ̵ҮջʿRãCajtan MassaΪڻˣԼϺˮֺͼĶ˺ˡԼҲȾ˺֢ζ[92]ʮ꣨1908ʥԻɽĴʼ֮һɪ(Joseph Freinademetz)ҲΪ˺߶ܵȾ[93]

֮ʱ̻ǰδеôʱˣһʱ̻йչͬʱҲʮעؿչҽƷڸش԰ټƲͬģҽԺܴʿЩҽƻֱĿΪ˴壬Դﵽع黯йڣǣЩڶҽƻĴ죬ڷƶڣʹ˻á

 

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ʱڣйֻIJϣƵԣÿֻĻսҷᾭúصӰ졣³羭òƣ˿ڴҴʹŮ磬ʧΪȱҵ[94]˱᳡£ڻ̻ҲͶ뵽֡ľȼûС

   ʮšʮ꣨1849-1850䣬һ˺Ĵˮ֡罭յط³Ѯֹ֮У٣һ΢עƽˮߣֹ࣬һƬ󣬽ݽǡȰڴɣδ֣෽й޼ƲʩˮгͽѣԸڣʧһֲ˶쳣աɡ̫ʮݡأ޴֣μء佭򽭳ǣ׵̴⧲б˿ڣҰҲš¶ܣʡھ޽֮УˮǣαͣʵΪδ֮¡С񵱴®ȫʧʳ֮ʣǿ߳˻ᣬʳ룬[95]ڵش̵ҮջʿһЩУҲ˴˴νϴˮֵҮջʿ(Auguste Poissemeux)ڸʡ᳤˵һڣ¸ͣ˵۹Ľ뷺ˣָΧļʡԣũˮŴʳˮﶼˡС͵ȷе˵һЩΪյı˳ڵطϣ˿ڶ࣬˵˵ĵɺõʱһгƶˣôֻʱڱȻ˶ͣˣˮҲûũˣǽ͸ˮأһɹߵijЩļ񣬸dzǧȥ[96]ӿϺϾȴУϺطҮջʿµᵽһƽ⣬ ͻȻ˳ǧڵЩҹҹ缯·ϣܾ˼尾󲿷˱ض[97]ֺŰ֮ʣʱϵ̻Ͷ뵽ֹС磬Үջʿǽ̻Ღÿ޵ľھȼֵͽͥԷõ֯£̻ỹϺط⸻̵ʩᣬֵ񷢷žȼʳҮջʿµļأÿ죬СǧǧסԺȡƻӦһľȼס[98]̻ƾٻ˸ĿһЩĸ̵̣ʩṤܸжҲҪμӽ̻ĴҵǵIJʩͳΪԮ[99]һЩҮջʿԷõĴ£߱ϺֵŪԼͣڻֽеĴֻΪ߸ϴ⣬ҲЩ߱ҪĻ[100]պŵطǴ˴ˮŰһˮֳʱžѾҰյ˴̲õҮջʿ÷¶(Mathurin Lemaitre)һд185068յ̸˵غŵ飺11º12𣬳⡢ϡ·Ѿˡͨһǣڽϵ˵Ѵһǧ֮ࡣʹйˣںǹҪռٷ֮ʮ룺ӵм˿ڵİ뵺ϣжȥѽ[101]÷¶̴ʿܿȫԸͶ뵽ֹӵǧѵıȥҪDz跨ȼĻǾкü˵ȥΪ伢źȥüҼһţҲǡ̸Ҽƶһǧ෨ɣ᳤һǣҲһʽгһʿӸҡЩȼÿʿ÷¶ԾȻ˴ļ񣬽ʱŷ̻ᲦһǧŰٷƿʹáһǧԻȡ[102]ڴ˴ξֹУ̻ḶۡΪǮھȼвµڳィеһȱж֮áΪʽѷòȷԭʽȡϲһŲĴԲֻԭƻ֮߶ϴæᶥֳһֱƽӷ׵ѿ״̬[103]ˣһЩ̴ʿΪ˾˱Ϻ̵ҮջʿRãΪڻˣԼϺˮֺͼĶ˺ˡſϺ̨ļƶҽԺ¶ķʱҪܶҶ̹ǰžȼάĹ185049գǧǰȡȼRһ춼ðűά򣬹䣬Ⱦİ˺Լ29[104]ͬ׵ط۾̵İر»񸸣Paul PacelliҲΪչͻߵĽͽȾ˰˺185062ȥ[105]

峯̷Ԫ꣨1851ͬʮ꣨1874ʮʱйʷϱĽˡֱʱڡ[106]ڻ̻Ҳ뵽ʱڵĿ־ߡĹС磬̷꣨1853Ϊ˵ֿ̫ƽĽ̫ƽڽϵչ˼ҵսս´ӿϺ൱󲿷ڽϵͽ̷꣨1857̫ƽƽսطʱһʼϺϺ̵ҮջʿЩԽϸͽֱ𰲲Ϻһ㼰ڽϺֶȵ̷ʮ꣨1860Ժ󣬴߽Ϻ̻ڶҶɡ亡һܴ˳Ūסݡ񣬰˴񡣴Үջʿʽһд1862529յǿԿʱ̻õʮӴɴҲ̻ʩ⹤˾޴ѹҶɼΧһǧǧһǧ֮һ˿ڵĻʳɽ֮˵ļ裬ҲһЩҶһصıÿʩ뷹[107]Ϊ˻㹻ľȼÿ̻Ϻչ˹㷺ļ˾ٵõʿĻӦһЩԣͽ˴ڵƿһλٵĸԣͽͲ˳ɰǧԪڼͥйһѵͽһЩͽĸԣ˼ңҦȼ壬Ҳңȼ񡣴̷ʮһʮ䣨1861-1862Ϻܹ֧˳ʮɵƿھȼڻʥӤƻܻҲ𽥴ԾȼͽΪЩϺĿڶķǽͽ[108]ͬԪ꣨1862ʰŮִʱǺܿһרΪ񷢷žȼʳʩ೧ͬ꣨1868ͬΰ꣨1869䣬ʩ೧Ϊṩ56700˴εķʳ[109]

峯Ԫ꣨18751879䣬ɽֱɽϵʡйʷϺĴ֡꣨1877ɽطǧ塢֣֮࣬δ[110]ϵطҲǡڵ;ڷѩĿ״[111]ȫʡǸʮأȫ߶ʮأԼƺϼа򣬺ӱ򣬼У·Уʿ֪ʡ೧崦ÿԼߡǧˣ򼢺ָʤ[112]طʳIJ״ⳡĴѸ峯ֹ˼ѹʱڻ̻ҲͶ뵽С̻½̼ڻ⽻١˵ϺˡйֻίԱᡱļֿʳƷȹ̻ļľȼÿܴϺҶɵطͽڹ꣨1878һΪȼñһ෨ɵľȼÿ[113]ʱڣ޻ȺɵֹĴʿﵽʮˡЩ̴ʿչЧľȼû꣨1878ϡĺ֡ʡ̻ᡰǮ׸ɢ񣬲СӤ[114] ϽҸڵط̻ⷽĴ̵أֻɵٶλͽɥ̻شʧ̴ʿǾ񣺡Ԫ꣨1875-1877䣬йʡֻġʱ˳ο̶ԼĴƹֽڽⶼԳȺʳ¡̣P.Volenteriʱصصŷȥ֣úܺá˱˽ʿһɼıʾҲdz֪µ˶̵ܵIJɼλ񸸷ʩģִˡᡢͼŵ[115]ʥĸʥĻɹŵҲչ˾ֹġ꣨1876-1877䣬ɹŵ֣򼢣Ȳֲ󣬶Ұɹ󼢣׼춷Ǯǧ˰ģߴ룬ཫ֮ţ[116]ʥĸʥĻᴫʿɹ񣬲ڻþȼúϴΪͽ[117]ʥĸʥĻᴫʿͨɵصķʽԾȼáʡ塢꣨1877-1878󺵣ʳݸʳƤҶ㾡ּ֮԰ɳص֮ɱͶߡ⣬ӲдԹߡ뷢⡣־˹ǡÿղʱȮǽкţʳкɢԭҰ䡣[118]ʥĸʥĻᴫʿ˾(Steenackers Jan-Bapist)ɹŶпСϵط˴Ƭɵأ˴[119]ֻġʱڣʥĸʥĻ񡢿ؽڽ̴ķʽýϴijɹij£𽥳ũ壬ЩǴ˾Ԯɵġ˾Ĺ̵߽ũҵʹӦɹ򡢵ʣ͸ũߣõڣ̵ǿѻĵأԴҵнչͣһ͵Ĵ̷ʽũԲٳɹ֮ȯȻʱ粻겻˳ҵȣʹǹжϣʹƲΪǶһֿɿο壻ǸֵģسΪԼIJƲͯѧУͶԾҽǻָǿȺӹ֣ˣеľĵ¹ۣʹdzΪõĻͽĹ帣ù[120]ͳ꣨1910ɹŵ캵ǸգɹŽþַ͡ʩá[121]˵Ƶֻսڼ䣬ڻ̻ᶼȼûΪ˻ƻһ̶ϵĹסִƻҲΪʱڵ̻Ჩ˲ʮ꣨1891쿤ȄһжڻľֹۣʡֵطʿȾߣIJˣƺʩɼΡ[122]

    Ͽɼʱ̻ڻĴҵĩǰҪĽչһʱڣܵƽԼı̻йϷ̵ȨɴΪ̻ڻ¸ҵõλʱڣ̻ڻ̻룬̻ĴҵҲ鼰ȫֵһǣʱ̻ĴƻѾֳһϵͳƣͻصǻÿϴĽӤá¶ԺҽԺһ׾ȼûӶγ걸Ĵƾϵ⣬Ž̻׳󣬸ľԴҲȽȶӶʹһʱ̻ƻľȼǰ˺ܴߡ

 

  ̴ҵȼýṹı仯Ӱ

 

ʮ꣨1850ڽϵ̵ҮջʿԺŰӵıҴдһλȨ֯ҵѿʼʰϺǶջľɹҴӽ˷֪еĴҵʹǴġ[123]Զ׼ʱڻչҵĿģ˱̴Ȱ壬ΪƶȺṩҪľ֮⣬󴫽̹ʵʹй̣ӶйҲһҪĿġȻDZִȱΪ˽ȼ񣬻ԴΪֶʵڽڻչĴ׸¡μƶһϵдҵѣṩȺľʰο棬һ̶ϵĻЧ̻Ϊһڽ֯뵽ƶÿУʱڴйȼ˵ɾвɵ͹塣رʱڣ̽Ϊձйؿչҵйԭеijȼýṹ±仯

ѻƬսǰڻչĴƻȻޣей֮ȼûҪǹٸΪάͳΣìܣӳ͢ٸȼøһ̶ȵӣڸ˲پ磬˰Ӥáû򾴽Ӥ¹ˡʩڣ԰ƶա֣֡Աֻġս俪ʩü񡣳֮⣬ʿ弰𡢵ΪҲвƵƻ֯¸ƻ[124]൱һʱڣйȼýṹһֱɡȻԺ̻ڻ̻룬̸޻ڸ˸ƻ൱طЩ̻άֵĴƻȽϻԾŵطҪľȼùֻġսڼ䣬̻񡢾淢Ҫáɴ˱̻ĴҵѾڽйȼûаҪɫ̻ΪһµĴ뵽ԭеĹٸȼУӶı˴ͳйȼýṹ

Ȼ̻ƻڴʹͳйȼýṹǨͬʱҲʹý̻Ĵҵһ뵽Ƶ̰С̻ڽйչĸƻǻģҲӮһйڵͬǣʱ£һЩ̵ĴΪΪйײ⣬Ϊ̳ͻһҪԭУΪ͵ľ̻ڻӤҵ

˷Ľ̰Уɽ̻Ӥҵijͻռһ[125]ͬԪ꣨1862)Ľϲ̰[126]ͬξ꣨1870̰[127]ʮ꣨1891ĺѨ̰[128]˲̰[129]Ϊ̻ӤҵڲɣӶģ̳ͻĽ̰УѾ˽⵽Ӥ¶ԺϵӤ¶ڻҪһҵƽĶۣҵйά˿ڹģȶŻ塣ͳйʿᳫӤҪٸԣ˼ڼֳʳϵӤ䵱ȻĵһҪݡ[130]ʿ֮ԳӤ˲̼Ϳ֮̿⣬ҪǽΪΪȹ̷⽨ͳεһȱٵ̻شΧؿչӤҵʵҲйͳνײġӤ֮١ϵġô̻ҵΪʲôһʱձ·Ϊɿޣ̻һأ[131]

й̻ڻӤҵԭǶ෽ġȣӤӤڶ༰ӤϸߵʣڵIJɡʱڣ̻ϵӤЩӤڱͽӤ֮ǰвΪ·ҰʱѾһϢ⻹һֱصļټӤá¶ԺձªӤδܵõõչˣòȾȥݽӤڵӤںܸߵʡӤڴӤ϶̻ӤΪɼɷΣ̻ΪӤϴ󣬿Խԭ죬˴ʿ䴫Ա顢ԴӤʱʩϴʩϴʽҲ绳ɡͨտһ棬ӤսϴӤӤִһ棬ʿΪӤʩϴʽ⡣ˣǺ׽̻ӤĿIJ۸֮аϵΪ̻ӤƣǻնġͬԪ꣨1862ط̵һ̴ָ̽ʿӤڲ۸ްֲ֮࣬ƭŮ׺ȡ侫裬ҩ裬ͯвˡ⣬кʮˣŮʮˣĿɿڴΪаɡڸú쾮ʯ£Ӥ衢һǽԽΣ֮ȥѪѪƵ෸֮ߣһ㡣ýΪزݣ˹ߡ[132]ʵϣЩָػԺ޸ݵҥһЩʶԱѦɡ֮ȶԴ˼Գ塣ͬξ꣨1870̰˰һоͲ϶̻Ӥò۸ָأ˲ЩҥĸԴʴò鴦ŮһʮڣһѶϰѾãлޱ¡ģȫϵҥʵݡΩ˵ҥ⣬֮ϡ֮ݡżʡ֮ƽϭĽƽùƭڣƽģƽ۸ŮʺᣬδϭĽ֮ʵʱס˴һȷݣ׷ӯ̳¡ɱʬҩҰ׶֮вΪӢΪ˲֮У֮¡[133]ָ̱ϵȰΪƣʥʻʵʱþУ޺֮ңڿ֮ʴ֮裬ӤáԺͬרΪÿޣʴΪܲп֮֮޷޲ƽҲ[134]ղ¼ӤΪʴŮؤ񼰼롣˽ʩϴ֮˵ʩϴˮĿνҲռռ֮ˣϴʬۣ֮ѿ죬ߣʮˣԵιʡ[135]ߣӤá˹ֶ࣬ҹʬʬһߡ[136]Щʹɡ⣬Ӧᵽһǣʱ̻Ӥ¶Ժ裬ĴһЩϴƶຢӣŮΪ࣬˾Ҳ϶̻⡣ִһͬ佭ٸطʿ̻ӤϵĴʴʾطӳһ㣺ʣҵȴϺ˴࣬˵ȰΪơƩӤһڣǺ£ƣұӤǰ˼Ҳӱ鲸ڶʮŮӤҮǽ˲۸Ү[137]жʱնӤҵɡԭ

ָģ˼̻̻ȴ⵽ǴͬԪ꣨1862ϵȵرջð󣬵ʱפʹʿ͢ݽջᣬоָй̻ҵ⣺ֽڵغ߼ʿŮ飬֪̾ѽɱȹٸļɣойָʡ̣µýüѧáӤõԼӤȮ֮ڣڣԳҵʱ޶Dz֮дѾãǴ٣ڴʿ̩֮ƣԲ֮йΪ֮㣬׼ڲɸһ[138]

һڻ̴ʿҲϣܹ峯ٸճ̻ӤҵĴʣ磬ͬ꣨1867Dzʹʿּ͢俪Ӥҵʱºţϸ˵ӤҵԵ𡢾ԴмӤᣬϵʮӤͯǮߤɣΪĸߴ佫ʼԷһЧСʷ꣣ռ㡣л˾ɣֲʡ̣ҩС¿ӤŮӤһ꣬Կ飬ϰָˣҵıŮDzޡ[139]⣬һЩط̴ʿӤãطǰۿܹطԴӤõƫȻ󲿷̴ʿΪ̻Ӥ˽˳ϼӷաɴһ˫֮ڽ̻ԹӤĵҥĴмͻݱΪǣ̳ͻ

ʱΪ̻ӤƵ̰ǿĸԤ£ƣӦԣƵ٣ʱҪǿսթͼ̻ڻӤҵԸĸơֹ̻ڻӤͬԪ꣨1862ϲ̰󣬽Ѳָ̻͢Ӥ鷳鷨޽׺ģ׺Ů٣塢ʮһ겻ȣ޻鲸ߡɡ[140]ͬξ꣨1870ΪҥԹӤٻٽáɱ˵Ĵ̰սɴ͢ڽ̻Ӥĸ߶ӡ߼Աȷʾ̲˼Ӥá[141]̨һּڴ̰ġ̰³̡³̰аеһרԽ̻Ӥ񣺡Ӥδ׺ף֮βӤøвó顣ãֻ˸֮Ȼرעˡ[142]³̷ӳԽ̻ڻӤ̬ȡʹ̻ӤֻͽŹ£ҶӤ뱨עᡣǣŽӤġ̰³̡ջʱȴ⵽ľܾʮ꣨1889ݵط̻Ӥ߾Ӥᣬɣҥ𣬡˲кӤоݣɱʿٲöġ[143]ʱ֮ܶΪìܣ뷨פִ̣ƶˡʿӤð취͢ȫմ˰䷨ǡʿӤÿӤе߱ÿɳָ֮עԱӤò鿴һΣδ䷨չ˲ʱġвʣдɹӤίԱӸӤôݣȻùľ񣬲ǰ[144] 취ּǽڵ̻ڻӤҵͳһ֮£̻֮ӤõĹȨӽ̻ƽ峯طٸУ̻˵Ȼܽܡˣ׼֮İ취ȫȴ⵽ڻ̻ĵ뷴ԡ˺Ϊ̻ӤĽ̰ȻڸƵ[145]Ϊ̰ٴͼ̻ڻӤ⡣͢߼ԱǷ׷Ҫֹ̻ڻӤٶҪǿԽ̻Ӥù[146]⵽פʹڼڻ̻ƶ޷С[147]

ָǣ̻ڻӤһ̶Ҳƶ͢Ӥҵķչ޷ƶȡ̻Ӥãתϣͨ԰Ӥƽ̻Ӥҵʮ꣨1891ԱƷ԰Ӥ̻Ӥڸһپ֣Ϊģ԰ӤԶı峣䵳[148]ͬ꣬ʷϡΪ̰ӤʡӤáһۣ͢ʡ輯ӤӤڳ磬̴ռ֮һ䣬ͨ衣һ٣ʵݼ񡣡ָ˾ٲԡԤԴ˳顱ҿԡ̰֮ףǿ֮ȡһٶƱɡ[149]ߴõ͢Ͽɣܿ䲼ͣҪʡԱƳﻮӤ񣺡Ӥһ£ǰּͨڽ̰ˣɸӤƣʹطٳ쾡ƣԿȡֱʡϤ죬Ϊﻭʵݼ[150]˺󣬸ʡһ˰Ӥҵij[151]̴ҵӰйȼýṹ仯ɺӵһ档

̻֮ڽ̻Ӥҵϵ飬Ǻֵӵġһʾ̴ҵڽйᱣϿռеĴһҲӳͼ̻ҵٸŬ

 

                         

 

ĩ̻ڻƻ˳̽֡п֪ĩ壬ڻƻһķչ̡ѻƬսǰڻ̻Ȼޣ൱ʱڴһֱֹľأˣܴʱ̻ҲչһЩƻԴ𲽽׶ΣڴͳйȼýṹռıǵµġԺı仯ʱڣڻ˲ƽԼıйѸٴŽ̻ķ̻ͣڻƻҲ뵽һ½׶Ρ͵ʱ̻ڴ¡ҽԼȷ涼˾޴ŬӶһ̶滺ѣ˲ְյļࡣ⣬ʱڣ̻ỹй˰԰ټƵĸѧУЩѧУУвҲڴʣܱIJûרŶԴչ֣̻̽ڻѧٴ룬ʹӵܻݣҲֲشٽķչ˵ʱ̻ѾΪйеһҪȼ̻ĴҵҲǽйȼҵҪɲ֡

 

                                    ߵλ Ŵѧ

 



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[16]źյ±ࡢ֣µ룺Үջʿй򼯡2ᣬ49ҳ

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[30] ֮о룺ڻҮջʿдĿ636ҳ

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[32] ֮о룺ڻҮջʿдĿ549ҳ

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[35] źյ±ࡢ֣µ룺Үջʿй򼯡2ᣬ10ҳ

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[38] źյ±ࡢ֣µ룺Үջʿй򼯡2ᣬ218ҳ

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[43] ʷʽϴʷһ147ҳ

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[48] ʷʽϴʷڶ156ҳ

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[52] лйҵͳƣ1901-1920йѧ磬1987꣬²ᣬ1066ҳ

[53] ӱʡ־ڽ־й鼮磬1995298ҳ

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[55] ʷʽϴʷڶ213ҳ

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[61] ʷʽϴʷһ353ҳ

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[80] ḭ̃2109ҳ

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[84] ʷʽϴʷڶ333ҳ

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[86]ࣺʥʰŮڻʷʡ˼166ҳ

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[88] ʮй֮걨ݱࣺ֮ʮꡪ걨ʮ1872-1922Ϻ걨ݣ19225ҳ

[89] ͨ־ڽ־62ҳ

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[92] ʷʽϴʷһ182ҳ

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[94] ĺԴֻ뼢 1840-1919ߵȽ磬1991

[95] ĺԴֻ뼢ˣ1840-191958ҳ

[96] ʷʽϴʷһ171-172ҳ

[97] ʷʽϴʷһ171ҳ

[98] ʷʽϴʷһ171ҳ

[99] ʷʽϴʷһ172ҳ

[100] ʷʽϴʷһ172ҳ

[101] ʷʽϴʷһ179-180ҳ

[102] ʷʽϴʷһ180ҳ

[103] ʷʽϴʷһ211-212ҳ

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[107] ʷʽϴʷڶ72ҳ

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[109]ࣺʥʰŮڻʷʡ˼166ҳ

[110]ĺԴֻ뼢ˣ1840-1919135ҳ

[111]ĺԴֻ뼢ˣ1840-1919136ҳ

[112] 1878214ա

[113] ʷʽϴʷڶ279ҳ

[114] ḭ̃2227ҳ

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[125] 弾̳ͻ1860-1899̨̨ӡݣ199180ҳ

[126] ϲ̰ḭ̃1217-218ҳ228-230ҳ

[127] ̰ḭ̃1776-778ҳ809-812ҳ

[128] Ѩ̰ḭ̃2495-500ҳ

[129] ˲̰ḭ̃2561-564ҳ

[130] ˣʩ̻Ĵ֯94ҳ

[131] ̻Ӥҵ̰֮ϵоҪʵǿй𷴽̵ԭ1860-1874̨оԺʷо 1985139-144ҳޡʮйӤá۽ʥоĵȱࣺ˶йڽ̡23-42ҳ

[132] ʵǿй𷴽̵ԭ1860-1874141ҳ

[133] ḭ̃1809ҳ

[134] ḭ̃1810ҳ

[135] ḭ̃1810ҳ

[136] ḭ̃1810ҳ

[137] ḭ̃1297ҳ

[138] ḭ̃1256-257ҳ

[139] ʵǿй𷴽̵ԭ1860-1874142ҳ

[140] ḭ̃1229ҳ

[141] ḭ̃1834ҳ

[142] ټԡ13ҳʮһ꣨1905ٱӡ

[143] ḭ̃2474ҳ

[144] ḭ̃2474ҳ

[145] ḭ̃2478ҳ

[146] ḭ̃2483-486ҳ632ҳ

[147] ḭ̃2642ҳ

[148] ḭ̃2486ҳ

[149] ḭ̃2501ҳ

[150] ḭ̃2502ҳ

[151] ḭ̃2533-534ҳ